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Technical Paper

Effects of Mixture Preparation Characteristics on Four-Stroke Utility Engine Emissions and Performance

1996-08-01
961738
A laboratory-based fuel mixture system capable of delivering a range of fuel/air mixtures has been used to observe the effects of differing mixture characteristics on engine combustion through measurement and analysis of incylinder pressure and exhaust emissions. Fuel air mixtures studied can be classified into four different types: 1) Completely homogeneous fuel/air mixtures, where the fuel has been vaporized and mixed with the air prior to entrance into the normal engine induction system, 2) liquid fuel that is atomized and introduced with the air to the normal engine induction system, 3) liquid fuel that is atomized, and partially prevaporized but the air/fuel charge remains stratified up to introduction to the induction system, and 4) the standard fuel metering system. All tests reported here were conducted under wide open throttle conditions. A four-stroke, spark-ignited, single-cylinder, overhead valve-type engine was used for all tests.
Technical Paper

Direct Calibration of LIF Measurements of the Oil Film Thickness Using the Capacitance Technique

1997-10-01
972859
A direct calibration has been performed on laser-induced fluorescence measurements of the oil film in a single cylinder air-cooled research engine by simultaneously measuring the minimum oil film thickness by the capacitance technique. At the minimum oil film thickness the capacitance technique provides an accurate measure of the ring-wall distance, and this value is used as a reference for the photomultiplier voltage, giving a calibration coefficient. This calibration coefficient directly accounts for the effect of temperature on the fluorescent properties of the constituents of the oil which are photoactive. The inability to accurately know the temperature of the oil has limited the utility of off-engine calibration techniques. Data are presented for the engine under motoring conditions at speeds from 800 - 2400 rpm and under varying throttle positions.
Technical Paper

In-Cylinder Mixing Rate Measurements and CFD Analyses

1999-03-01
1999-01-1110
Gas-phase in-cylinder mixing was examined by two different methods. The first method for observing mixing involved planar Mie scattering measurements of the instantaneous number density of silicon oil droplets which were introduced to the in-cylinder flow. The local value of the number density was assumed to be representative of the local gas concentration. Because the objective was to observe the rate in which gas concentration gradients change, to provide gradients in number density, droplets were admitted into the engine through only one of the two intake ports. Air only flowed through the other port. Three different techniques were used in analyzing the droplet images to determine the spatially dependent particle number density. Direct counting, a filtering technique, and autocorrelation were used and compared. Further, numerical experiments were performed with the autocorrelation method to check its effectiveness for determination of particle number density.
Journal Article

Investigation of Spray Evaporation and Numerical Model Applied for Fuel-injection Small Engines

2008-09-09
2008-32-0064
The purpose of this research is to develop a prediction technique that can be used in the development of port fuel-injection (hereinafter called PFI) gasoline engines, especially for general purpose small utility engines. Utility engines have two contradictory desirable aspects: compactness and high-power at wide open throttle. Therefore, applying the port fuel injector to utility engines presents a unique intractableness that is different from application to automobiles or motorcycles. At the condition of wide open throttle, a large amount of fuel is required to output high power, and injected fuel is deposited as a wall film on the intake port wall. Despite the fuel rich condition, emissions are required to be kept under a certain level. Thus, it is significant to understand the wall film phenomenon and control film thickness in the intake ports.
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