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Technical Paper

Nonlinear Cylinder and Intake Manifold Pressure Observers for Engine Control and Diagnostics

Nonlinear observer theories are applied to the engine estimation problem in order to reconstruct engine states based on the measured engine variables, and dynamic mean torque production and cylinder-by-cylinder engine models. Engine cylinder and intake manifold pressures are two important factors in engine control and diagnostics. This paper discusses how to design nonlinear engine cylinder pressure and intake manifold pressure observers that have good robustness and estimation accuracy. Sliding mode theory in Variable Structure Systems (VSS) have shown good performance and been successfully applied to many nonlinear systems. Accordingly, sliding observers are selected for this study.
Technical Paper

A/F Ratio Visualization in a Diesel Spray

We have applied an imaging system to a spray in an engine-fed combustion bomb to investigate some of the features of diesel spray ignition. A high pressure electronic unit injector with main and pilot injection features was used. Our interest in this work was the local air/fuel ratio, particularly in the vicinity of the spray plumes. The measurement was made by seeding the air in the intake manifold with biacetyl. A tripled ND:YAG laser causes the biacetyl to fluoresce with a signal that is proportional to its local concentration. The biacetyl partial pressure was carefully controlled, enabling approximate estimates of the local stoichiometry in the fuel spray. Twenty-four different cases were sampled. Parameters varied include swirl ratio, fuel quantity, number of holes in the fuel nozzle and distribution of fuel quantities in the pilot and main injections. This paper presents the results of three of these cases.
Technical Paper

Integration of a Continuous Multi-Component Fuel Evaporation Model with an Improved G-Equation Combustion and Detailed Chemical Kinetics Model with Application to GDI Engines

A continuous multi-component fuel evaporation model has been integrated with an improved G-equation combustion and detailed chemical kinetics model. The integrated code has been successfully used to simulate a gasoline direct injection engine. In the multi-component fuel model, the theory of continuous thermodynamics is used to model the properties and composition of multi-component fuels such as gasoline. In the improved G-equation combustion model a flamelet approach based on the G-equation is used that considers multi-component fuel effects. To precisely calculate the local and instantaneous residual which has a great effect on the laminar flame speed, a “transport equation residual” model is used. A Damkohler number criterion is used to determine the combustion mode in flame containing cells.
Technical Paper

Modeling Knock in Spark-Ignition Engines Using a G-equation Combustion Model Incorporating Detailed Chemical Kinetics

In this paper, knock in a Ford single cylinder direct-injection spark-ignition (DISI) engine was modeled and investigated using the KIVA-3V code with a G-equation combustion model coupled with detailed chemical kinetics. The deflagrative turbulent flame propagation was described by the G-equation combustion model. A 22-species, 42-reaction iso-octane (iC8H18) mechanism was adopted to model the auto-ignition process of the gasoline/air/residual-gas mixture ahead of the flame front. The iso-octane mechanism was originally validated by ignition delay tests in a rapid compression machine. In this study, the mechanism was tested by comparing the simulated ignition delay time in a constant volume mesh with the values measured in a shock tube under different initial temperature, pressure and equivalence ratio conditions, and acceptable agreements were obtained.
Journal Article

Divided Exhaust Period Implementation in a Light-Duty Turbocharged Dual-Fuel RCCI Engine for Improved Fuel Economy and Aftertreatment Thermal Management: A Simulation Study

Although turbocharging can extend the high load limit of low temperature combustion (LTC) strategies such as reactivity controlled compression ignition (RCCI), the low exhaust enthalpy prevalent in these strategies necessitates the use of high exhaust pressures for improving turbocharger efficiency, causing high pumping losses and poor fuel economy. To mitigate these pumping losses, the divided exhaust period (DEP) concept is proposed. In this concept, the exhaust gas is directed to two separate manifolds: the blowdown manifold which is connected to the turbocharger and the scavenging manifold that bypasses the turbocharger. By separately actuating the exhaust valves using variable valve actuation, the exhaust flow is split between two manifolds, thereby reducing the overall engine backpressure and lowering pumping losses. In this paper, results from zero-dimensional and one-dimensional simulations of a multicylinder RCCI light-duty engine equipped with DEP are presented.