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Technical Paper

Effect of Gas Density and the Number of Injector Holes on the Air Flow Surrounding Non-Evaporating Transient Diesel Sprays

The effect of ambient gas density and the number of injector holes on the characteristics of airflow surrounding non-evaporating transient diesel sprays inside a constant volume chamber were investigated using a 6-hole injector. Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) was used to measure the gas velocities surrounding a spray plume as a function of space and time. A conical control surface surrounding the spray plume was chosen as a representative side entrainment surface. The positive normal velocities across the control surface of single-hole injection sprays were higher than those of 6-hole injection sprays. An abrupt increase in velocities tangential to the control surface near the chamber wall suggests that the recirculation of surrounding gas is accelerated by spray wall impingement.
Technical Paper

Transient Spray Characteristics of a Direct-Injection Spark-Ignited Fuel Injector

This paper describes the transient spray characteristics of a high pressure, single fluid injector, intended for use in a direct-injection spark-ignited (DISI) engine. The injector was a single hole, pintle type injector and was electronically controlled. A variety of measurement diagnostics, including full-field imaging and line-of-sight diffraction based particle sizing were employed for spray characterization. Transient patternator measurements were also performed to obtain temporally resolved average mass flux distributions. Particle size and obscuration measurements were performed at three locations in the spray and at three injection pressures: 3.45 MPa (500 psi), 4.83 Mpa (700 psi), and 6.21 MPa (900 psi). Results of the spray imaging experiments indicated that the spray shapes varied with time after the start of injection and contained a leading mass, or slug along the center line of the spray.
Technical Paper

In-Cylinder Measurement and Modeling of Liquid Fuel Spray Penetration in a Heavy-Duty Diesel Engine

Liquid fuel penetration was measured using an endoscopebased imaging system in an operating single-cylinder heavy-duty direct injection diesel engine with simulated turbocharging. Sprays were imaged via the elastic backscatter technique without significantly altering the engine geometry. Light loads (or pilot injections) were also studied because the spray breakup, mixing and vaporization processes can be isolated since they are less influenced by heat feedback from the flame than in a full injection case. The pilot injections included cases with three different fuel amounts (10%, 15% and 20% of the fuel injected in the baseline case, i.e., 75% load and 1600 rev/min) with different start-of-injection timings. Maximum liquid penetration lengths beyond which the fuel is completely vaporized were observed for all the cases studied. The maximum lengths varied from 23 mm to 28 mm for the different start-of-injection timings.
Technical Paper

A Study on the Effects of Fuel Viscosity and Nozzle Geometry on High Injection Pressure Diesel Spray Characteristics

The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of fuel viscosity and the effects of nozzle inlet configuration on the characteristics of high injection pressure sprays. Three different viscosity fuels were used to reveal the effects of viscosity on the spray characteristics. The effects of nozzle inlet configuration on spray characteristics were studied using two mini-sac six-hole nozzles with different inlet configurations. A common rail injection system was used to introduce the spray at 90 MPa injection pressure into a constant volume chamber pressurized with argon gas. The information on high pressure transient sprays was captured by a high speed movie camera synchronized with a pulsed copper vapor laser. The images were analyzed to obtain the spray characteristics which include spray tip penetration, spray cone angle at two different regions, and overall spray Sauter Mean Diameter (SMD).
Technical Paper

Two-Color Imaging of In-Cylinder Soot Concentration and Temperature in a Heavy-Duty DI Diesel Engine with Comparison to Multidimensional Modeling for Single and Split Injections

Two-Color imaging optics were developed and used to observe soot emission processes in a modern heavy-duty diesel engine. The engine was equipped with a common rail, electronically-controlled, high-pressure fuel injection system that is capable of up to four injection pulses per engine cycle. The engine was instrumented with an endoscope system for optical access for the combustion visualization. Multidimensional combustion and soot modeling results were used for comparisons to enhance the understanding and interpretation of the experimental data. Good agreement between computed and measured cylinder pressures, heat release and soot and NOx emissions was achieved. In addition, good qualitative agreement was found between in-cylinder soot concentration (KL) and temperature fields obtained from the endoscope images and those obtained from the multidimensional modeling.
Technical Paper

Hydrodynamics of Droplet Impingement on a Heated Surface

The impingement of liquid fuels on surfaces in IC engines affects performance and emissions. To better understand liquid/solid interactions, the impact of single droplets on a healed surface was experimentally examined. The droplet impingement was photographed with a high speed cine camera to obtain a history of the hydrodynamics of the impingement process. Images obtained from the cine photography were inspected to determine hydrodynamic regimes: wetting, transition, and non-wetting, associated with the specific impingement conditions (droplet size, velocity, surface temperature, and ambient pressure). Images from selected impingement conditions were further analyzed to quantify the atomization resulting from the impingement.
Technical Paper

Intake Valve Flow Measurements Using PIV

Intake valve flow patterns have been measured quantitatively using particle image velocimetry (PIV) for a commercial 4-valve diesel cylinder head and valve system. The measurements have been made for low (600 engine RPM) and higher (1000 engine RPM) speeds, and at several planes in the valve curtain area. The measurements involve double exposure photography of laser light scattered by seed particles (≅1 μm) from a laser light sheet (≅ 0.5 mm by 50 mm) through an imaging system onto silver halide film. Subsequent processing produces the local particle displacement between the two exposures. Combined with the known time interval between exposures, the displacement information can produce velocity vectors at many locations in the field of view. The results of the experiments are shown as vector plots for each operating condition. In the plane of the illuminating laser sheet, velocity vectors representing local gas velocity are produced.
Technical Paper

High Resolution In-Cylinder Scalar Field Measurements during the Compression and Expansion Strokes

High-resolution planar laser-induced fluorescence (PLIF) measurements were performed on the scalar field in an optical engine. The measurements were of sufficient resolution to fully resolve all of the length scales of the flow field through the full cycle. The scalar dissipation spectrum was calculated, and by fitting the results to a model turbulent spectrum the Batchelor scale of the turbulent flow was estimated. The scalar inhomogeneity was introduced by a low-momentum gas jet injection. A consistent trend was observed in all data; the Batchelor scale showed a minimum value at top dead center (TDC) and was nearly symmetric about TDC. Increasing the engine speed resulted in a decrease of the Batchelor scale, and the presence of a shroud on the intake valve, which increased the turbulence intensity, also reduced the Batchelor scale. The effect of the shrouded valve was less significant compared to the effect of engine speed.
Technical Paper

In-Cylinder Mixing Rate Measurements and CFD Analyses

Gas-phase in-cylinder mixing was examined by two different methods. The first method for observing mixing involved planar Mie scattering measurements of the instantaneous number density of silicon oil droplets which were introduced to the in-cylinder flow. The local value of the number density was assumed to be representative of the local gas concentration. Because the objective was to observe the rate in which gas concentration gradients change, to provide gradients in number density, droplets were admitted into the engine through only one of the two intake ports. Air only flowed through the other port. Three different techniques were used in analyzing the droplet images to determine the spatially dependent particle number density. Direct counting, a filtering technique, and autocorrelation were used and compared. Further, numerical experiments were performed with the autocorrelation method to check its effectiveness for determination of particle number density.
Technical Paper

Characteristics of Air Flow Surrounding Non-Evaporating Transient Diesel Sprays

Airflow characteristics surrounding non-evaporating transient diesel sprays were investigated using a 6-hole injector. Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) was used to measure the gas velocities surrounding a spray plume as a function of space and time. A hydraulically actuated, electronically controlled unit injector (HEUI) system was used to supply the fuel into a pressurized constant volume chamber at room temperature. The chamber gas densities in this study were 10 kg/m3, 20 kg/m3 and 30 kg/m3. The injection pressure was 96.5 MPa. Two frequency doubled (532 nm) Nd:YAG lasers were used to create coincident laser sheets to illuminate the test section at two instances after start of injection (ASI). The double exposed images of sprays and Al2O3 seed particles were developed and velocity vectors of the gas surrounding the transient diesel sprays were obtained using a numerical autocorrelation PIV method.
Technical Paper

The Effect of Swirl Ratio and Fuel Injection Parameters on CO Emission and Fuel Conversion Efficiency for High-Dilution, Low-Temperature Combustion in an Automotive Diesel Engine

Engine-out CO emission and fuel conversion efficiency were measured in a highly-dilute, low-temperature diesel combustion regime over a swirl ratio range of 1.44-7.12 and a wide range of injection timing. At fixed injection timing, an optimal swirl ratio for minimum CO emission and fuel consumption was found. At fixed swirl ratio, CO emission and fuel consumption generally decreased as injection timing was advanced. Moreover, a sudden decrease in CO emission was observed at early injection timings. Multi-dimensional numerical simulations, pressure-based measurements of ignition delay and apparent heat release, estimates of peak flame temperature, imaging of natural combustion luminosity and spray/wall interactions, and Laser Doppler Velocimeter (LDV) measurements of in-cylinder turbulence levels are employed to clarify the sources of the observed behavior.
Technical Paper

Investigation of MicroFlow Machining Effects on Diesel Injector Spray Characteristics

An investigation of the effect of microflow machining on the spray characteristics of diesel injectors was undertaken. A collection of four VCO injector tips were tested prior to and after an abrasive flow process using a high viscosity media. The injector nozzles were tested on a spray fixture. Rate of injection measurements and high-speed digital images were used for the quantification of the air entrainment rate. Comparisons of the spray characteristics and A/F ratios were made for conditions of before and after the abrasive flow process. Results showed a significant decrease in the injection-to-injection variability and improvement of the spray symmetry. A link between the quantity of air entrained and potential differences in spray plume internal chemical composition and temperature is proposed via equilibrium calculations.
Technical Paper

On the Calibration of Single-Shot Planar Laser Imaging Techniques in Engines

The noise characteristics of four camera systems representative of those typically used for laser-imaging experiments (a back-illuminated slow-scan camera, a frame-straddling slow-scan camera, an intensified slow-scan camera and an intensified video-rate camera) were investigated, and the results are presented as a function of the signal level and illumination level. These results provide the maximum possible signal-to-noise ratio for laser-imaging experiments, and represent the limit of quantitative signal interpretation. A calibration strategy for engine data that limits the uncertainties associated with thermodynamic and optical correction was presented and applied to engine data acquired with two of the camera systems. When a rigorous analysis of the signal is performed it is seen that shot noise limits the quantitative interpretation of the data for most typical laser-imaging experiments, and obviates the use of single-pixel data.
Technical Paper

Air Flow Characteristics Surrounding Evaporating Transient Diesel Sprays

Airflow characteristics surrounding evaporating transient diesel sprays inside a constant volume chamber under temperatures around 1100 K were investigated using a 6-hole injector and a single-hole injector. Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) was used to measure the gas velocities surrounding a spray plume as a function of space and time. A conical control surface surrounding the spray plume was chosen as a representative side entrainment surface. The normal velocities crossing the control surface toward the spray plume for single-hole injection sprays were higher than those of 6-hole injection sprays. The velocities tangential to the control surface toward the injector tip for the single-hole injection sprays were lower than those of 6-hole injection sprays. An abrupt increase in tangential velocities near the chamber wall suggests that the recirculation of surrounding gas was accelerated by the spray wall impingement, both for non-evaporating and evaporating sprays.
Technical Paper

Determination of Flame-Front Equivalence Ratio During Stratified Combustion

Combustion under stratified operating conditions in a direct-injection spark-ignition engine was investigated using simultaneous planar laser-induced fluorescence imaging of the fuel distribution (via 3-pentanone doped into the fuel) and the combustion products (via OH, which occurs naturally). The simultaneous images allow direct determination of the flame front location under highly stratified conditions where the flame, or product, location is not uniquely identified by the absence of fuel. The 3-pentanone images were quantified, and an edge detection algorithm was developed and applied to the OH data to identify the flame front position. The result was the compilation of local flame-front equivalence ratio probability density functions (PDFs) for engine operating conditions at 600 and 1200 rpm and engine loads varying from equivalence ratios of 0.89 to 0.32 with an unthrottled intake. Homogeneous conditions were used to verify the integrity of the method.
Journal Article

Pathline Analysis of Full-cycle Four-stroke HCCI Engine Combustion Using CFD and Multi-Zone Modeling

This paper investigates flow and combustion in a full-cycle simulation of a four-stroke, three-valve HCCI engine by visualizing the flow with pathlines. Pathlines trace massless particles in a transient flow field. In addition to visualization, pathlines are used here to trace the history, or evolution, of flow fields and species. In this study evolution is followed from the intake port through combustion. Pathline analysis follows packets of intake charge in time and space from induction through combustion. The local scalar fields traversed by the individual packets in terms of velocity magnitude, turbulence, species concentration and temperatures are extracted from the simulation results. The results show how the intake event establishes local chemical and thermal environments in-cylinder and how the species respond (chemically react) to the local field.