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Technical Paper

Transient Spray Characteristics of a Direct-Injection Spark-Ignited Fuel Injector

1997-02-24
970629
This paper describes the transient spray characteristics of a high pressure, single fluid injector, intended for use in a direct-injection spark-ignited (DISI) engine. The injector was a single hole, pintle type injector and was electronically controlled. A variety of measurement diagnostics, including full-field imaging and line-of-sight diffraction based particle sizing were employed for spray characterization. Transient patternator measurements were also performed to obtain temporally resolved average mass flux distributions. Particle size and obscuration measurements were performed at three locations in the spray and at three injection pressures: 3.45 MPa (500 psi), 4.83 Mpa (700 psi), and 6.21 MPa (900 psi). Results of the spray imaging experiments indicated that the spray shapes varied with time after the start of injection and contained a leading mass, or slug along the center line of the spray.
Technical Paper

Future Developments in Forage Harvesting Machinery and Processing

1988-09-01
881289
Forage harvesting, processing and handling equipment research is currently underway which will improve commodity quality, produce “value -added” products from forages, reduce energy and labor requirements of the equipment and improve forage marketability. Technologies are described which could increase forage quality and value by removing it from the field sooner after it is mowed to minimize the risk of weather damage. Mechanisms and management strategies for reducing the labor and energy required for field processing and for improving the marketability of forages are also described.
Technical Paper

Simplified Engine Combustion Diagnostics Using “Synthetic” Variables

2000-03-06
2000-01-0364
This paper presents a diagnostics methodology that has applications to internal combustion engines as well as other dynamic devices. Included is an overview of the theoretical foundation of the approach, discussions on its application to internal combustion engine diagnostics, and experimental engine data showing the application of this methodology. Also included are the recent developments addressing issues of the effect of motoring compression and expansion work on crankshaft speed fluctuations and the resulting torque estimation. The methodology consists of a hard-wired nonlinear to linear transformation of engine variables that allow all subsequent diagnostics and control calculations to use linear mathematics, which significantly simplifies the size and complexity of the engine control and diagnostics strategy and code.
Technical Paper

Adapting Farm Equipment for Workers with Disabilities

2004-10-26
2004-01-2704
Farm workers experience a very high incidence of injuries leading to physical and cognitive (strokes, TBI) disabilities. Since 1991, the AgrAbility Project 2 and its staff have provided direct assistance and education to many U.S. farmers and farm workers. If farmers, ranchers or farm workers who become disabled continue to be employed in agriculture, often their agricultural operation must be modified and/or agricultural machinery must be modified or adaptive equipment purchased to meet their new needs. Some common tractor modifications include operator lifts, hand controls, added/modified steps and handrails, automated hitches, and custom seating. Some modifications are commercially available but others are done on an individual need basis. AgrAbility staff would welcome the opportunity to work closer with farm equipment manufacturers to create modifications that would make farming and ranching easier and safer for all.
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