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Technical Paper

Mechanism of Soot and NOx Emission Reduction Using Multiple-injection in a Diesel Engine

1996-02-01
960633
Engine experiments have shown that with high-pressure multiple injections (two or more injection pulses per power cycle), the soot-NOx trade-off curves of a diesel engine can be shifted closer to the origin than those with the conventional single-pulse injections, reducing both soot and NOx emissions significantly. In order to understand the mechanism of emissions reduction, multidimensional computations were carried out for a heavy-duty diesel engine with multiple injections. Different injection schemes were considered, and the predicted cylinder pressure, heat release rate and soot and NOx emissions were compared with measured data. Excellent agreements between predictions and measurements were achieved after improvements in the models were made. The improvements include using a RNG k-ε turbulence model, adopting a new wall heat transfer model and introducing the nozzle discharge coefficient to account for the contraction of fuel jet at the nozzle exit.
Technical Paper

The Development of the University of Wisconsin's Parallel Hybrid-Electric Aluminum Intensive Vehicle

1999-03-01
1999-01-0613
For competition in the 1998 FutureCar Challenge (FCC98), the University of Wisconsin - Madison FutureCar Team has designed and built a lightweight, charge sustaining, parallel hybrid electric vehicle by modifying a 1994 Mercury Sable Aluminum Intensive Vehicle (AIV), nicknamed the Aluminum Cow. The Wisconsin team is striving for a combined, FTP cycle gasoline-equivalent fuel economy of 21.3 km/L (50 mpg) and Ultra Low Emissions Vehicle (ULEV) federal emissions levels while maintaining the full passenger/cargo room, appearance, and feel of a full-size car. To reach these goals, Wisconsin has concentrated on reducing the overall vehicle weight. In addition to customizing the drivetrain, the team has developed a vehicle control strategy that both aims to achieve these goals and also allows for the completion of a reliable hybrid in a short period of time.
Technical Paper

Design and Development of the University of Wisconsin's Parallel Hybrid-Electric Sport Utility Vehicle

2003-03-03
2003-01-1259
The University of Wisconsin - Madison FutureTruck Team has designed and built a four-wheel drive, charge sustaining, parallel hybrid-electric sport utility vehicle for entry into the FutureTruck 2002 competition. This is a two-year project with tiered goals; the base vehicle for both years is a 2002 Ford Explorer. Wisconsin's FutureTruck, nicknamed the ‘Moolander’, weighs approximately 2050 kg. The vehicle uses a high efficiency, 2.5 liter, turbo-charged, compression ignition common rail, direct-injection engine supplying approximately 100 kW of peak power and a AC induction motor that provides an additional 33 kW of peak power. This hybrid drivetrain is an attractive alternative to the large displacement V6 drivetrain, as it provides comparable performance with similar emissions and drastically reduced fuel consumption.
Technical Paper

Design and Optimization of the University of Wisconsin's Parallel Hybrid-Electric Sport Utility Vehicle

2002-03-04
2002-01-1211
The University of Wisconsin - Madison FutureTruck Team has designed and built a four-wheel drive, charge sustaining, parallel hybrid-electric sport utility vehicle for entry into the FutureTruck 2001 competition. The base vehicle is a 2000 Chevrolet Suburban. Our FutureTruck is nicknamed the “Moollennium” and weighs approximately 2427 kg. The vehicle uses a high efficiency, 2.5 liter, turbo-charged, compression ignition common rail, direct-injection engine supplying approximately 104 kW of peak power and a three phase AC induction motor that provides an additional 68.5 kW of peak power. This hybrid drivetrain is an attractive alternative to the large displacement V8 drivetrain, as it provides comparable performance with lower emissions and fuel consumption. The PNGV Systems Analysis Toolkit (PSAT) model predicts a Federal Testing Procedure (FTP) urban driving cycle fuel economy of 11.24 km/L (26.43 mpg) with California Ultra Low Emission Vehicle (ULEV) emissions levels.
Technical Paper

Design and Testing of a Prototype Midsize Parallel Hybrid-Electric Sport Utility

2004-10-25
2004-01-3062
The University of Wisconsin - Madison hybrid vehicle team has designed and constructed a four-wheel drive, charge sustaining, parallel hybrid-electric sport utility vehicle for entry into the FutureTruck 2003 competition. This is a multi-year project utilizing a 2002 4.0 liter Ford Explorer as the base vehicle. Wisconsin's FutureTruck, nicknamed the ‘Moolander’, weighs 2000 kg and includes a prototype aluminum frame. The Moolander uses a high efficiency, 1.8 liter, common rail, turbo-charged, compression ignition direct injection (CIDI) engine supplying 85 kW of peak power and an AC induction motor that provides an additional 60 kW of peak power. The 145 kW hybrid drivetrain will out-accelerate the stock V6 powertrain while producing similar emissions and drastically reducing fuel consumption. The PNGV Systems Analysis Toolkit (PSAT) model predicts a Federal Testing Procedure (FTP) combined driving cycle fuel economy of 16.05 km/L (37.8 mpg).
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