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Technical Paper

A Sequential Fluid-Mechanic Chemical-Kinetic Model of Propane HCCI Combustion

We have developed a methodology for predicting combustion and emissions in a Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) Engine. This methodology combines a detailed fluid mechanics code with a detailed chemical kinetics code. Instead of directly linking the two codes, which would require an extremely long computational time, the methodology consists of first running the fluid mechanics code to obtain temperature profiles as a function of time. These temperature profiles are then used as input to a multi-zone chemical kinetics code. The advantage of this procedure is that a small number of zones (10) is enough to obtain accurate results. This procedure achieves the benefits of linking the fluid mechanics and the chemical kinetics codes with a great reduction in the computational effort, to a level that can be handled with current computers.
Technical Paper

Injection and Ignition Effects on Two-Stroke Direct Injection Emissions and Efficiency

To help understand the fundamental processes involved in direct injection, a research project was conducted using a single-cylinder, two-stroke research engine at a mid-speed, boat load operating condition. A 24 statistical factorial experimental design was applied. Of the factors tested at this operating condition, spray type was the most important factor affecting hydrocarbon emissions, followed by in-cylinder flow-related factors. Injection spray was also most important for nitrogen oxide emissions, carbon monoxide emissions, and efficiency. The dominant mechanism influencing the results was misfire, with other mechanisms present for specific responses.
Technical Paper

Emissions and Performance of a Small L-Head Utility Engine Fueled with Homogeneous Propane/Air and Propane/Air/Nitrogen Mixture

The objective of this study was to observe and attempt to understand the effects of equivalence ratio and simulated exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) on the exhaust emissions and performance of a L-head single cylinder utility engine. In order to isolate these effects and limit the confounding influences caused by poor fuel mixture preparation and/or vaporization produced by the carburetor/intake port combination, the engine was operated on a premixed propane/air mixture. To simulate the effects of EGR, a homogeneous mixture of propane, air, and nitrogen was used. Engine measurements were obtained at the operating conditions specified by the California Air Resources Board (CARB) Raw Gas Method Test Procedure. Measurements included exhaust emissions levels of HC, CO, and NOx, and engine pressure data.
Technical Paper

Three Way Catalyst Modeling with Ammonia and Nitrous Oxide Kinetics for a Lean Burn Spark Ignition Direct Injection (SIDI) Gasoline Engine

A Three-Way Catalyst (TWC) model with global TWC kinetics for lean burn DISI engines were developed and validated. The model incorporates kinetics of hydrocarbons and carbon monoxide oxidations, NOx reduction, water-gas and steam reforming and oxygen storage. Ammonia (NH₃) and new nitrous oxide (N₂O) kinetics were added into the model to study NH₃ and N₂O formation in TWC systems. The model was validated over a wide range of engine operating conditions using various types of experimental data from a lean burn automotive SIDI engine. First, well-controlled time-resolved steady state data were used for calibration and initial model tests. In these steady state operations, the engine was switched between lean and rich conditions for NOx emission control. Then, the model was further validated using a large set of time-averaged steady state data. Temperature dependencies of NH₃ and N₂O kinetics in the TWC model were examined and well captured by the model.
Technical Paper

Integration of Hybrid-Electric Strategy to Enhance Clean Snowmobile Performance

The University of Wisconsin-Madison Snowmobile Team designed and constructed a hybrid-electric snowmobile for the 2005 Society of Automotive Engineers' Clean Snowmobile Challenge. Built on a 2003 cross-country touring chassis, this machine features a 784 cc fuel-injected four-stroke engine in parallel with a 48 V electric golf cart motor. The 12 kg electric motor increases powertrain torque up to 25% during acceleration and recharges the snowmobile's battery pack during steady-state operation. Air pollution from the gasoline engine is reduced to levels far below current best available technology in the snowmobile industry. The four-stroke engine's closed-loop EFI system maintains stoichiometric combustion while dual three-way catalysts reduce NOx, HC and CO emissions by up to 94% from stock. In addition to the use of three way catalysts, the fuel injection strategy has been modified to further reduce engine emissions from the levels measured in the CSC 2004 competition.
Technical Paper

The Effect of Swirl Ratio and Fuel Injection Parameters on CO Emission and Fuel Conversion Efficiency for High-Dilution, Low-Temperature Combustion in an Automotive Diesel Engine

Engine-out CO emission and fuel conversion efficiency were measured in a highly-dilute, low-temperature diesel combustion regime over a swirl ratio range of 1.44-7.12 and a wide range of injection timing. At fixed injection timing, an optimal swirl ratio for minimum CO emission and fuel consumption was found. At fixed swirl ratio, CO emission and fuel consumption generally decreased as injection timing was advanced. Moreover, a sudden decrease in CO emission was observed at early injection timings. Multi-dimensional numerical simulations, pressure-based measurements of ignition delay and apparent heat release, estimates of peak flame temperature, imaging of natural combustion luminosity and spray/wall interactions, and Laser Doppler Velocimeter (LDV) measurements of in-cylinder turbulence levels are employed to clarify the sources of the observed behavior.
Technical Paper

Piston-Liner Crevice Geometry Effect on HCCI Combustion by Multi-Zone Analysis

A multi-zone model has been developed that accurately predicts HCCI combustion and emissions. The multi-zone methodology is based on the observation that turbulence does not play a direct role on HCCI combustion. Instead, chemical kinetics dominates the process, with hotter zones reacting first, and then colder zones reacting in rapid succession. Here, the multi-zone model has been applied to analyze the effect of piston crevice geometry on HCCI combustion and emissions. Three different pistons of varying crevice size were analyzed. Crevice sizes were 0.26, 1.3 and 2.1 mm, while a constant compression ratio was maintained (17:1). The results show that the multi-zone model can predict pressure traces and heat release rates with good accuracy. Combustion efficiency is also predicted with good accuracy for all cases, with a maximum difference of 5% between experimental and numerical results.
Technical Paper

Investigation of Augmented Mixing Effects on Direct-Injection Stratified Combustion

The effects of augmented mixing through the use of an auxiliary gas injection (AGI) were investigated in a direct-injection gasoline engine operated at a 22:1 overall air-fuel ratio, but with retarded injection timing such that the combustion was occurring in a locally rich mixture as evident by the elevated CO emissions. Two AGI gas compositions, nitrogen and air, were utilized, the gas supply temperature was ambient, and a wide range of AGI timings were investigated. The injected mass was less than 10% of the total chamber mass. The injection of nitrogen during the latter portion of the heat release phase resulted in a 25% reduction in the CO emissions. This reduction is considered to be the result of the increased mixing rate of the rich combustion products with the available excess air during a time when the temperatures are high enough to promote rapid oxidation.
Technical Paper

A Decoupled Model of Detailed Fluid Mechanics Followed by Detailed Chemical Kinetics for Prediction of Iso-Octane HCCI Combustion

We have developed a methodology for predicting combustion and emissions in a Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) Engine. The methodology judiciously uses a fluid mechanics code followed by a chemical kinetics code to achieve great reduction in the computational requirements; to a level that can be handled with current computers. In previous papers, our sequential, multi-zone methodology has been applied to HCCI combustion of short-chain hydrocarbons (natural gas and propane). Applying the same procedure to long-chain hydrocarbons (iso-octane) results in unacceptably long computational time. In this paper, we show how the computational time can be made acceptable by developing a segregated solver. This reduces the run time of a ten-zone problem by an order of magnitude and thus makes it much more practical to make combustion studies of long-chain hydrocarbons.
Technical Paper

Experimental Investigation of Direct Injection-Gasoline for Premixed Compression Ignited Combustion Phasing Control

A direct injection-gasoline (DI-G) system was applied to a heavy-duty diesel-type engine to study the effects of charge stratification on the performance of premixed compression ignited combustion. The effects of the fuel injection parameters on combustion phasing were of primary interest. The simultaneous effects of the fuel stratification on Unburned Hydrocarbon (UHC), Oxides of Nitrogen (NOx), Carbon Monoxide (CO), and smoke emissions were also measured. Engine tests were conducted with altered injection parameters covering the entire load range of normally aspirated Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignited (HCCI) combustion. Combustion phasing tests were also conducted at several engine speeds to evaluate its effects on a fuel stratification strategy.
Journal Article

Detailed Effects of a Diesel Particulate Filter on the Reduction of Chemical Species Emissions

Diesel particulate filters are designed to reduce the mass emissions of diesel particulate matter and have been proven to be effective in this respect. Not much is known, however, about their effects on other unregulated chemical species. This study utilized source dilution sampling techniques to evaluate the effects of a catalyzed diesel particulate filter on a wide spectrum of chemical emissions from a heavy-duty diesel engine. The species analyzed included both criteria and unregulated compounds such as particulate matter (PM), carbon monoxide (CO), hydrocarbons (HC), inorganic ions, trace metallic compounds, elemental and organic carbon (EC and OC), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and other organic compounds. Results showed a significant reduction for the emissions of PM mass, CO, HC, metals, EC, OC, and PAHs.
Journal Article

CO Emission Model for an Integrated Diesel Engine, Emissions, and Exhaust Aftertreatment System Level Model

A kinetic carbon monoxide (CO) emission model is developed to simulate engine out CO emissions for conventional diesel combustion. The model also incorporates physics governing CO emissions for low temperature combustion (LTC). The emission model will be used in an integrated system level model to simulate the operation and interaction of conventional and low temperature diesel combustion with aftertreatment devices. The Integrated System Model consists of component models for the diesel engine, engine-out emissions (such as NOx and Particulate Matter), and aftertreatment devices (such as DOC and DPF). The addition of CO emissions model will enhance the capability of the Integrated System Model to predict major emission species, especially for low temperature combustion. In this work a CO emission model is developed based on a two-step global kinetic mechanism [8].