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Technical Paper

Gas Efficient Liquid Atomization Using Micro-Machined Spray Nozzles

1996-02-01
960859
Improved atomization is important in fuel injection applications since atomization influences fuel-air mixing and vaporization rates. The present paper explores the use of low pressure gas/air injection and methods to achieve a dispersed two-phase flow to enhance the atomization process. Gas-driven twin-fluid atomization has been achieved by combining X-ray lithographic/micro-machining technology to mechanically disperse a driving gas into a liquid to be sprayed. This technique forces the gas through a designed pattern of micron sized holes thereby yielding a field of micro-bubbles immediately upstream of the < I mm. diameter discharge orifice. Precise control of both uniformity of hole diameter and inter-hole spacing is critical to producing a well dispersed bubbly flow. The results show that the method of gas injection influences the liquid breakup process. Results are given for steady-flow atomization with low pressure injection into ambient air.
Technical Paper

Effects of Mixture Preparation Characteristics on Four-Stroke Utility Engine Emissions and Performance

1996-08-01
961738
A laboratory-based fuel mixture system capable of delivering a range of fuel/air mixtures has been used to observe the effects of differing mixture characteristics on engine combustion through measurement and analysis of incylinder pressure and exhaust emissions. Fuel air mixtures studied can be classified into four different types: 1) Completely homogeneous fuel/air mixtures, where the fuel has been vaporized and mixed with the air prior to entrance into the normal engine induction system, 2) liquid fuel that is atomized and introduced with the air to the normal engine induction system, 3) liquid fuel that is atomized, and partially prevaporized but the air/fuel charge remains stratified up to introduction to the induction system, and 4) the standard fuel metering system. All tests reported here were conducted under wide open throttle conditions. A four-stroke, spark-ignited, single-cylinder, overhead valve-type engine was used for all tests.
Technical Paper

Mixture Preparation Effects on Ignition and Combustion in a Direct-Injection Spark-Ignition Engine

1996-10-01
962013
Planar instantaneous fuel concentration measurements were made by laser-induced fluorescence of 3-pentanone in the spark gap just prior to ignition in a direct-injection spark-ignition engine operating at a light load, highly stratified condition. The distribution of the average equivalence ratio in a circle of 1.9 mm diameter centered on the spark plug showed that a large fraction of the cycles had an equivalence ratio below the lean limit, yet acceptable combustion was achieved in those cycles. Further, weak correlation was found between the local average equivalence ratio near the spark plug and the time required to achieved a 100 kPa pressure rise above the motoring pressure, as well as other parameters which characterize the early stages of combustion. The cause for this behavior is assessed to be mixture motion during the spark discharge which continually convects fresh mixture through the spark gap during breakdown.
Technical Paper

Transient Spray Characteristics of a Direct-Injection Spark-Ignited Fuel Injector

1997-02-24
970629
This paper describes the transient spray characteristics of a high pressure, single fluid injector, intended for use in a direct-injection spark-ignited (DISI) engine. The injector was a single hole, pintle type injector and was electronically controlled. A variety of measurement diagnostics, including full-field imaging and line-of-sight diffraction based particle sizing were employed for spray characterization. Transient patternator measurements were also performed to obtain temporally resolved average mass flux distributions. Particle size and obscuration measurements were performed at three locations in the spray and at three injection pressures: 3.45 MPa (500 psi), 4.83 Mpa (700 psi), and 6.21 MPa (900 psi). Results of the spray imaging experiments indicated that the spray shapes varied with time after the start of injection and contained a leading mass, or slug along the center line of the spray.
Technical Paper

In-Cylinder Measurement and Modeling of Liquid Fuel Spray Penetration in a Heavy-Duty Diesel Engine

1997-05-01
971591
Liquid fuel penetration was measured using an endoscopebased imaging system in an operating single-cylinder heavy-duty direct injection diesel engine with simulated turbocharging. Sprays were imaged via the elastic backscatter technique without significantly altering the engine geometry. Light loads (or pilot injections) were also studied because the spray breakup, mixing and vaporization processes can be isolated since they are less influenced by heat feedback from the flame than in a full injection case. The pilot injections included cases with three different fuel amounts (10%, 15% and 20% of the fuel injected in the baseline case, i.e., 75% load and 1600 rev/min) with different start-of-injection timings. Maximum liquid penetration lengths beyond which the fuel is completely vaporized were observed for all the cases studied. The maximum lengths varied from 23 mm to 28 mm for the different start-of-injection timings.
Technical Paper

Effects of Injection Pressure and Nozzle Geometry on Spray SMD and D.I. Emissions

1995-10-01
952360
A study was performed to correlate the Sauter Mean Diameter (SMD), NOx and particulate emissions of a direct injection diesel engine with various injection pressures and different nozzle geometry. The spray experiments and engine emission tests were conducted in parallel using the same fuel injection system and same operating conditions. With high speed photography and digital image analysis, a light extinction technique was used to obtain the spray characteristics which included spray tip penetration length, spray angle, and overall average SMD for the entire spray. The NOx and particulate emissions were acquired by running the tests on a fully instrumented Caterpillar 3406 heavy duty engine. Experimental results showed that for higher injection pressures, a smaller SMD was observed, i.e. a finer spray was obtained. For this case, a higher NOx and lower particulate resulted.
Technical Paper

Nonlinear Cylinder and Intake Manifold Pressure Observers for Engine Control and Diagnostics

1994-03-01
940375
Nonlinear observer theories are applied to the engine estimation problem in order to reconstruct engine states based on the measured engine variables, and dynamic mean torque production and cylinder-by-cylinder engine models. Engine cylinder and intake manifold pressures are two important factors in engine control and diagnostics. This paper discusses how to design nonlinear engine cylinder pressure and intake manifold pressure observers that have good robustness and estimation accuracy. Sliding mode theory in Variable Structure Systems (VSS) have shown good performance and been successfully applied to many nonlinear systems. Accordingly, sliding observers are selected for this study.
Technical Paper

Measurement and Modeling of Thermal Flows in an Air-Cooled Engine

1996-08-01
961731
Control of the flow of thermal energy in an air-cooled engine is important to the overall performance of the engine because of potential effects on engine performance, durability, design, and emissions. A methodology is being developed for the assessment of thermal flows in air-cooled engines, which includes the use of cycle simulation and in-cylinder heat flux measurements. The mechanism for the combination of cycle simulation, the measurement of in-cylinder heat flux and wall temperatures, and comparison of predicted and measured heat flux in the methodology is presented. The methodology consists of both simulation and experimental phases. To begin, a one-dimensional gas dynamics code (WAVE) has been used in conjunction with a detailed in-cylinder flow and combustion model (IRIS) in order to simulate engine operation in a variety of operating conditions. The methods used to apply the model to the air-cooled engine case are described in detail.
Technical Paper

Injection Pressure Effects Upon Droplet Behavior in Transient Diesel Sprays

1997-02-24
970053
This paper reports on the investigation of injection pressure upon the droplet behavior in transient diesel sprays. Phase/Doppler results for a Diesel spray with a maximum fuel injection line pressure of 105 MPa are compared with previously acquired droplet size and velocity measurements for a Diesel spray with an injection pressure of 21 MPa. All measurements reported here were made in atmospheric conditions at a position near the nozzle. It is shown in these results that the droplet velocity and size profiles do maintain similarity despite the substantial change in injection pressure. Specific characteristics, for example, the appearance of subtle waves in the time-dependent spray data, are present in both data sets. Comparison of the measured droplet velocities and diameters with Weber number based stability criteria shows that increased injection pressure produces a higher percentage of droplets that are likely to breakup.
Technical Paper

A Study on the Effects of Fuel Viscosity and Nozzle Geometry on High Injection Pressure Diesel Spray Characteristics

1997-02-24
970353
The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of fuel viscosity and the effects of nozzle inlet configuration on the characteristics of high injection pressure sprays. Three different viscosity fuels were used to reveal the effects of viscosity on the spray characteristics. The effects of nozzle inlet configuration on spray characteristics were studied using two mini-sac six-hole nozzles with different inlet configurations. A common rail injection system was used to introduce the spray at 90 MPa injection pressure into a constant volume chamber pressurized with argon gas. The information on high pressure transient sprays was captured by a high speed movie camera synchronized with a pulsed copper vapor laser. The images were analyzed to obtain the spray characteristics which include spray tip penetration, spray cone angle at two different regions, and overall spray Sauter Mean Diameter (SMD).
Technical Paper

Modeling the Effects of Fuel Injection Characteristics on Diesel Engine Soot and NOx Emissions

1994-03-01
940523
The three-dimensional KIVA code has been used to study the effects of injection pressure and split injections on diesel engine performance and soot and NOx emissions. The code has been updated with state-of-the-art submodels including: a wave breakup atomization model, drop drag with drop distortion, spray/wall interaction with sliding, rebounding, and breaking-up drops, multistep kinetics ignition and laminar-turbulent characteristic time combustion, wall heat transfer with unsteadiness and compressibility, Zeldovich NOx formation, and soot formation with Nagle Strickland-Constable oxidation. The computational results are compared with experimental data from a single-cylinder Caterpillar research engine equipped with a high-pressure, electronically-controlled fuel injection system, a full-dilution tunnel for soot measurements, and gaseous emissions instrumentation.
Technical Paper

Effects of Injection Pressure and Nozzle Geometry on D.I. Diesel Emissions and Performance

1995-02-01
950604
An emissions and performance study was performed to show the effects of injection pressure, nozzle hole inlet condition (sharp and rounded edge) and nozzle included spray angle on particulate, NOx, and BSFC. The tests were conducted on a fully instrumented single-cylinder version of the Caterpillar 3406 heavy duty engine at 75% and 25% load at 1600 RPM. The fuel system consisted of an electronically controlled, hydraulically actuated, unit injector capable of injection pressures up to 160 MPa. Particulate versus NOx trade-off curves were generated for each case by varying the injection timing. The 75% load results showed the expected decrease in particulate and flattening of the trade-off curve with increased injection pressure. However, in going from 90 to 160 MPa, the timing had to be retarded to maintain the same NOx level, and this resulted in a 1 to 2% increase in BSFC. The rounded edged nozzles were found to have an increased discharge coefficient.
Technical Paper

Misfire Detection and Cylinder Pressure Reconstruction for SI Engines

1994-03-01
940144
Many researchers have studied and developed methods for on-board engine combustion misfire detection in production vehicles. Misfiring can damage the catalytic converter within a short time and can lead to increased emission levels. For that reason, the on-board detection of engine misfire is one requirement of the On Board Diagnosis II (OBDII) Regulation and a recent interest for many researchers. One object in this paper is to propose a misfire detection method for multi-cylinder SI engines. The detection is achieved by examining the estimated cylinder pressures and combustion heat release rates in engine cylinders. The Sliding Observer methodology is applied in these estimations. This detection method provides a reliable and low-cost way to diagnose engine misfires. The other object of the paper is to eliminate large estimation errors due to system unobservability and reconstruct cylinder pressures.
Technical Paper

Nozzle Effect on High Pressure Diesel Injection

1995-02-01
950083
Studies of transient diesel spray characteristics at high injection pressures were conducted in a constant volume chamber by utilizing a high speed photography and light extinction optical diagnostic technique. Two different types of nozzle hole entrances were investigated: a sharp-edged and a round-edged nozzle. The experimental results show that for the same injection delivery, the sharp-edged inlet injector needed a higher injection pressure to overcome the higher friction loss, but it produced longer spray tip penetration length, larger spray angle, smaller droplet sizes, and also lower particulate emission from a parallel engine test. For the round-edged and smooth edged tips at the same injection pressure, the sharp-edged inlet tip took a longer injection duration to deliver a fixed mass of fuel and produced larger overall average Sauter Mean Diameter (SMD) droplets.
Technical Paper

The Effects of Mixture Stratification on Combustion in a Constant-Volume Combustion Vessel

1998-02-01
980159
The role of mixture stratification on combustion rate has been investigated in a constant volume combustion vessel in which mixtures of different equivalence ratios can be added in a spatially and temporally controlled fashion. The experiments were performed in a regime of low fluid motion to avoid the complicating effects of turbulence generated by the injection of different masses of fluid. Different mixture combinations were investigated while maintaining a constant overall equivalence ratio and initial pressure. The results indicate that the highest combustion rate for an overall lean mixture is obtained when all of the fuel is contained in a stoichiometric mixture in the vicinity of the ignition source. This is the result of the high burning velocity of these mixtures, and the complete oxidation which releases the full chemical energy.
Technical Paper

Measurement of the Effect of Injection Rate and Split Injections on Diesel Engine Soot and NOx Emissions

1994-03-01
940668
This study was conducted to develop an understanding of how rate-shaped and split injections can affect the soot and NOx emissions of a heavy-duty diesel engine. The tests were performed on a single cylinder version of the Caterpillar 3406 production engine, modified to accept an electronically-controlled, high-pressure common-rail injection system that offers a very high degree of flexibility in injection timing, split injections, and rate shaping of the initial injection. The engine was instrumented for particulate measurements with a full dilution tunnel, and CO, CO2 and NOx emission meters. Cylinder pressure was used to study heat release rates, and the response to changes in the injection scheme. The results show that rate-shaped injection, when optimized for lowest BSFC, does not appreciably affect pressure rise or peak cylinder gas pressures.
Technical Paper

The Effect of Fuel Aromatic Structure and Content on Direct Injection Diesel Engine Particulates

1992-02-01
920110
A single cylinder, Cummins NH, direct-injection, diesel engine has been operated in order to evaluate the effects of aromatic content and aromatic structure on diesel engine particulates. Results from three fuels are shown. The first fuel, a low sulfur Chevron diesel fuel was used as a base fuel for comparison. The other fuels consisted of the base fuel and 10% by volume of 1-2-3-4 tetrahydronaphthalene (tetralin) a single-ring aromatic and naphthalene, a double-ring aromatic. The fuels were chosen to vary aromatic content and structure while minimizing differences in boiling points and cetane number. Measurements included exhaust particulates using a mini-dilution tunnel, exhaust emissions including THC, CO2, NO/NOx, O2, injection timing, two-color radiation, soluble organic fraction, and cylinder pressure. Particulate measurements were found to be sensitive to temperature and flow conditions in the mini-dilution tunnel and exhaust system.
Technical Paper

A Matrix-Based Porous Tube Water and Nutrient Delivery System

1992-07-01
921390
A system was developed which provides nutrients and water to plants while maintaining good aeration at the roots and preventing water from escaping in reduced gravity. The nutrient solution is circulated through porous tubes under negative pressure and moves through the tube wall via capillary forces into the rooting matrix, establishing a non-saturated condition in the root zone. Tests using prototypes of the porous tube water and nutrient delivery system indicate that plant productivity in this system is equivalent to standard soil and solution culture growing procedures. The system has functioned successfully in short-term microgravity during parabolic flight tests and will be flown on the space shuttle. Plants are one of the components of a bioregenerative life support system required for long duration space missions.
Technical Paper

Internal Flow in a Scale Model of a Diesel Fuel Injector Nozzle

1992-10-01
922308
An experimental investigation of turbulent flow patterns in a scale model of a high pressure diesel fuel injector nozzle has been conducted. Instantaneous velocity measurements were made in a 50X transparent model of one hole of the injector nozzle using an Aerometrics Phase Doppler Particle Analyzer (PDPA) in the velocity mode. Length to diameter ratio (L/D) values of 1.3, 2.4, 4.9, and 7.7 and inlet radius to diameter ratio (R/D) values of approximately 0 and 0.3 were investigated. Two steady flow average Reynolds numbers (10,500 and 13,300), analogous to fuel injection velocities and sac pressures of approximately 320 and 405 m/s and 67 and 107 MPa (10,000 and 16,000 psi), were investigated. The axial progression of mean and root mean square (rms) axial velocities was obtained for both sharp and rounded inlet conditions and varying L/D. The discharge coefficient was also calculated for each geometry.
Technical Paper

Hydrodynamics of Droplet Impingement on a Heated Surface

1993-03-01
930919
The impingement of liquid fuels on surfaces in IC engines affects performance and emissions. To better understand liquid/solid interactions, the impact of single droplets on a healed surface was experimentally examined. The droplet impingement was photographed with a high speed cine camera to obtain a history of the hydrodynamics of the impingement process. Images obtained from the cine photography were inspected to determine hydrodynamic regimes: wetting, transition, and non-wetting, associated with the specific impingement conditions (droplet size, velocity, surface temperature, and ambient pressure). Images from selected impingement conditions were further analyzed to quantify the atomization resulting from the impingement.
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