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Technical Paper

Reducing Starting Current for Existing Commercial Vehicle Engines

In present commercial vehicles, the cranking torque required for a heavy duty compression ignition engine is very high. This results in higher durability and reliability requirement of cranking system components and also makes it cumbersome to implement start-stop micro hybrid feature which requires more number of cranking cycles in lifetime. Hence higher capacity starter motor and battery is being used for implementing start-stop feature. However this would result in cost and packaging issues. In order to implement start-stop feature maintaining the same starter motor and battery capacity, the cranking energy demand of the engine needs to be reduced. Studies conducted shows that the major source of breakaway torque is the work done in compression stroke during a starting cycle.
Technical Paper

Modelling and Analysis of Variable Displacement Oil Pump for Automobile Applications

The present world persists with a twin crisis of energy consumption and the environmental degradation. Finding a compromise between them provides a breakthrough in the research in energy containments of the engine attachments. Oil pump has role of providing the transmission of oil to other engine parts and acts as the coolant for the moving parts. Conventional oil pump with pressure relief valve is its loss lot of energy in oil re-circulation due to the discharge effect. On contrary, the variable displacement oil pump has an effect on reduction of oil pressure using eccentric ring without having any compromise with the energy consumption. This paper proposes model and experimental methodology of a variable displacement Gerotor oil pump for lubricating the internal combustion engine. This particular unit is performed extremely in terms of rotational speed, delivery pressure and displacement variation.
Technical Paper

Study of Surface Integrity and Effect of Laser Peening on Maraging Steel Produced by Lasercusing Technique

In additive manufacturing, lasercusing is the selective laser melting technique. Finely pulverized metal is melted using a high-energy fibre laser, by Island principle strategy produces mechanically and thermally stable metallic components with reduced thermal gradients, stresses & at high precision. Maraging steel 300 (18Ni-300) is an iron-nickel steel alloy often used in applications requires high fracture toughness and strength. It maintains dimensional changes at a minimal level, e.g. aircraft and aerospace industries for rocket motor castings and landing gear or tooling applications. Current research attempts to analyze the effect of laser shock peening on lasercused material. Surface roughness of the material was found to be increased by 8%, due to effect of laser shock pulse & ablative nature. Also 8% increase in macro hardness on the surface.
Technical Paper

Theoretical Analysis of High Thermal Conductivity Polymer Composite Fin Based Automotive Radiator under Forced Convection

Though high thermal conductivity polymer composites are prepared based on the thermal requirements, the effectiveness and overall heat transfer performance of the radiators have to be addressed comprehensively to validate the concerned efforts taken to prepare the high thermal conductivity polymer composites. In this article, theoretical analysis on the thermal performance of the cross flow type heat exchanger under convection is performed only by concentrating on the term thermal conductivity of the material. Micro channel based geometry is extracted from the given heat exchanger problem to reduce the complexities of simulation. The term cooling system performance index (CSPI) is used to achieve the expected targets in the present investigation. For shorter fins, the effect of thermal conductivity on the cooling system performance index under lower Reynolds number is insignificant.
Technical Paper

A Hardware Model for Vehicular Network to Control Air Pollution Leading to Big Data Analytics

The foremost emphasis of this paper is to project the need for collecting the outlet pollutant gases from the individual vehicle which is on fleet and the need to maintain the vehicle to make the surveillance of vehicle in the fleet. The data that is collected from the vehicle was stored in the cloud and provided to the vehicle user mobile application that displays the level of pollutant. With the help of pollutant level the user may be aware of the maintenance or the change in vehicle filling station, which will reduce the overall level of pollutant of the vehicle. The data that is uploaded in the cloud will be used by the regional transport office to keep track of the vehicle user.
Technical Paper

Neural Network Based Virtual Sensor for Throttle Valve Position Estimation in a SI Engine

Electronic throttle body (ETB) is commonly employed in an intake manifold of a spark ignition engine to vary the airflow quantity by adjusting the throttle valve in it. The actual position of the throttle valve is measured by means of a dual throttle position sensor (TPS) and the signal is feedback into the control unit for accomplishing the closed loop control in order handle the nonlinearities due to friction, limp-home position, aging, parameter variations. This work aims presents a neural networks based novel virtual sensor for the estimation of throttle valve position in the electronic throttle body. Proposed neural network model estimates the actual throttle position using three inputs such as reference throttle angle, angular error and the motor current. In the present work, the dynamic model of the electronic throttle body is used to calculate the current consumed by the motor for corresponding throttle valve movement.
Technical Paper

Design and Development of a Dry Sump Lubrication System for a Formula SAE Race Car

A Formula student team aims to develop and improve their designs every year, as far as the powertrain aspect is considered performance output and enhancement is the primary aim, and for engine to perform better, the health of the engine is the most important parameter; hence the lubrication system of the vehicles powertrain should be improved to get the most out of the engine. The primary challenge for the development of a new lubrication system was the inability to replicate the performance given by stock wet sump with the self-designed custom dry sump. However, the advantages can outnumber the cons of implementing a custom dry sump lubrication system. The work brought together in this paper highlights the meticulous design procedure for implementing a custom made dry sump system onto a 4-cylinder in-line Honda CBR600RR engine.
Technical Paper

Analytical Investigation of Fan Shroud on a Thermal Heat Exchanger for Automotive Applications

Thermal management is one of the most challenging and innovative aspects of the automotive industry. The efficiency of the vehicle cooling framework unequivocally relies upon the air stream through the radiator core. Significant advances in thermal management are being embraced in the field of radiator material and coolant. The radiator shouldn't be exclusively credited for the reliable cooling of the engine. There are other auto parts that play an essential role in keeping engine temperature at a manageable level. The fan-shroud assembly is an important component of the cooling system. While the fan is responsible for drawing in air, the fan shroud's job is to ensure uniform air distribution to the radiator core. By assisting airflow in the engine compartment the fan shroud helps in dismissing excess heat from the engine. This assembly also prevents the recirculation of heated air through the cooling fan.
Technical Paper

Tribological Characteristics of Zinc Diakyldithio Phosphates Blended with Pongamia Biodiesel

The present research deals with study of pongamia oil methyl ester as a lubricant by blending with anti-wear additive ZDDP. The experimental work carried in this work aims to investigates the friction and wear characteristics by blending zinc diakyldithio phosphates (ZDDP) with pongamia oil methyl ester as lubricant under various loading conditions and temperatures. The coefficient of friction and wear scar depth were determined using pongamia biodiesel blended with 0.3%, 0.6% and 1 % ZDDP by concentration through high frequency reciprocating wear testing machine for 2 h duration. The reciprocating wear tests were performed on an engine liner-piston ring contact under the loads of 40 N, 60 N and 80 N for 2 h duration at temperatures of 100°C, 125°C 150° C with 10 Hz oscillation frequency. The addition of ZDDP with pongamia biodiesel showed marginal reduction in friction coefficient and wear scar depth under all loads and temperatures.
Technical Paper

Design and Development of Cooling System for a Formula SAE Race Car

In Formula Student, the vehicle working parameters are quite disparate from that of a commercially designed vehicle. The inability of teams to incorporate the atypical running conditions in their design causes multiple unforeseen issues. One such condition where the teams fail to improvise upon is the cooling system. Due to the high performance requirement of the competition, multiple teams participating face recurring heating problems. Maximum efficiency from a combustion vehicle can only be achieved when the cooling system is designed to handle the increasing power demand. This paper brings forth a detailed study on the intricate design of the cooling system. The problem has been approached using both theoretical and simulation models. Firstly, NTU-ℇ method was used to calculate the overall heat transfer coefficient and the temperature drop through the radiator core.
Technical Paper

An Upper Bound Elemental Technique for Load Prediction of Axisymmetric Hot Forged Specimens

Forging is a metal forming process involving shaping of metal by the application of compressive forces using hammer or press. Forging load of equipment is an important function of forging process and the prediction of the same is essential for selection of appropriate equipment. In this study a hot forging material i.e. 42CrMo4 steel is selected which is used in automotive components like axle, crank shaft. Hot forging experiments at 750°C are carried out on cylindrical specimens of aspect ratio 0.75 and 1.5 with true height strain (ln (ho/hf)) of 0.6. Forging load for the experiments is calculated using slab and upper bound deformation models as well as Metal forming simulation using commercially available FEA software. The upper bound models with 30% deviation from the simulation results are found to be more accurate compared to the slab models.
Technical Paper

Predicting Life-Cycle Estimation of Electric Vehicle Battery Pack through Degradation by Self Discharge and Fast Charging

Electric mobility is an emerging mode of transportation, causing rapid growth of battery pack usage in electric vehicles. These battery packs were limited working life to be used in electric Vehicles. In addition, the disposal is becoming as a major threat to an environment. So, there is a need to increase the working life of battery pack used in electric vehicles to reduce the burden on the environment. In this regard, this paper is focused on studying the life cycle estimation of the battery pack. Battery pack degradation was observed through its self-discharge pattern and also due to the urge to increase the rate of charging. This research study was focused on understanding the degradation rate due to self-discharge and also due to fast charging patterns in battery packs. Estimation of self-discharge is depending on voltage, time and state of charge of the battery pack. Simulation analysis will carry out to evaluate state of charge analysis of the electric vehicle battery pack.