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Technical Paper

Modelling and Analysis of Variable Displacement Oil Pump for Automobile Applications

2018-07-09
2018-28-0080
The present world persists with a twin crisis of energy consumption and the environmental degradation. Finding a compromise between them provides a breakthrough in the research in energy containments of the engine attachments. Oil pump has role of providing the transmission of oil to other engine parts and acts as the coolant for the moving parts. Conventional oil pump with pressure relief valve is its loss lot of energy in oil re-circulation due to the discharge effect. On contrary, the variable displacement oil pump has an effect on reduction of oil pressure using eccentric ring without having any compromise with the energy consumption. This paper proposes model and experimental methodology of a variable displacement Gerotor oil pump for lubricating the internal combustion engine. This particular unit is performed extremely in terms of rotational speed, delivery pressure and displacement variation.
Technical Paper

Optimization of Process Parameters for Electro Discharge Machining of Al 7075-Al2O3 Nano Composite Using Different Electrode Materials

2018-07-09
2018-28-0093
In the present study, an aluminium based nanocomposite, reinforced with 2 wt. % aluminium oxide (Al2O3) is developed through stir casting method. These hard ceramic particles also influence the material removal rate (MRR), electrode wear rate (EWR) and surface finish (Ra) in an electro-discharge machining (EDM) process. In this work, EDM of Al 7075/2 wt. % Al2O3 nanocomposite is carried out using copper and brass electrodes using Taguchi L18 array. The percentage contribution of each process parameter on the response variables was determined using analysis of variance (ANOVA). Multi-response signal to noise ratio (MRSN) and the optimum combination levels for the input parameters was obtained using Taguchi’s parametric design. MRR and surface roughness are substantially improved when machining is performed at optimized conditions.
Technical Paper

Experimental Study and CFD Analysis of an Aerofoil Structure for Automotive Body Design

2018-07-09
2018-28-0091
A study of an aerofoil structure used for automotive body design is being conducted and an experiment has been performed to determine the lift and drag forces produced by it by varying its Angle of Attack. The NACA0018 and NACA0015 aerofoil with a chord length of 16 cm were used for this study. Then an analysis was done with the help of (CFD) computational fluid dynamics. The results obtained by CFD analysis where compared by the experimental results which was performed on wind tunnel using NACA0018 aerofoil. The results are then presented graphically, showing pressure and velocity distributions lift and drag coefficients for the different cases which will be useful for design of automotive body structures.
Technical Paper

Development of Variable Stiffness Suspension System Considering Handling, Comfort and Structural Fatigue

2018-07-09
2018-28-0061
This paper describes the development of a varying stiffness suspension system to have better control over handling, comfort and structural fatigue of automobiles. Earlier approaches resulted in cumbersome designs and resulted in higher lateral forces on coil springs and structural fatigue. In this work, an initiative has been taken considering all these factors and optimizing the design at every stage of development to achieve lightweight and economical suspension system to meet the objectives. The variable stiffness is achieved through the relative travel of spring with respect to the wheel travel for different configurations. For this purpose, a stepper motor drive is employed to move the hinge point in the angular arch. The developed design is also examined through mathematical modeling and the MBD simulations.
Technical Paper

Theoretical Analysis of High Thermal Conductivity Polymer Composite Fin Based Automotive Radiator under Forced Convection

2018-07-09
2018-28-0099
Though high thermal conductivity polymer composites are prepared based on the thermal requirements, the effectiveness and overall heat transfer performance of the radiators have to be addressed comprehensively to validate the concerned efforts taken to prepare the high thermal conductivity polymer composites. In this article, theoretical analysis on the thermal performance of the cross flow type heat exchanger under convection is performed only by concentrating on the term thermal conductivity of the material. Micro channel based geometry is extracted from the given heat exchanger problem to reduce the complexities of simulation. The term cooling system performance index (CSPI) is used to achieve the expected targets in the present investigation. For shorter fins, the effect of thermal conductivity on the cooling system performance index under lower Reynolds number is insignificant.
Technical Paper

Chemical Kinetics Modelling of Exhaust After-Treatment System: A One Dimensional Simulation Approach

2019-01-09
2019-26-0249
The Indian automotive industry has taken a big leap towards stringent Bharat Stage VI (BS VI) emission standards by year 2020. A digital driven design and development focusing on innovative and commercially viable technologies for combustion and exhaust after-treatment system is the need of the time. One-dimensional (1D) simulation serves as a best alternative to its counterparts in terms of obtaining faster and accurate results, which makes it an ideal tool for carrying out optimization studies at system level. In this work, 1D chemical kinetics modelling and analysis of exhaust after-treatment system (EAT) for a heavy-duty diesel has been performed using GT-Power. Initially, a single site 1D model for a diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC) has been developed and then, a two-site, 1D model for a selective catalytic reduction (SCR) catalyst was also developed based on reactor data.
Technical Paper

Design and Analysis of Automotive Steering Sheet Metal Yoke for High Strength and Rigidity Requirement

2019-10-11
2019-28-0122
The increasing demand for light weighting products due to introduction of various standards and norms for controlling CO2 emissions and to meet the customer requirement of low cost with higher strength and rigidity of product in automotive industry, sheet metal manufacturing technique is adopted for automotive steering yoke for light commercial vehicle. Currently forged yokes are used for higher strength requirement, while sheet metal yokes are being used for small tonnage vehicle. The attempt has been made to improve overall strength and rigidity of the yoke produced by sheet metal operation using SAPH 440 steel with 6.5mm thickness for light commercial vehicle segments. The major challenge identified for this development was developing such a high strength and thickness material with consistency of dimension during forming process and meeting the torsional strength requirement of 500 Nm.
Technical Paper

Modelling and Validation of a Control Algorithm for Yaw Stability & Body Slip Control Using PID & Fuzzy Logic Based Controllers

2019-10-11
2019-28-0054
Advanced driver-assistance systems (ADAS) are becoming an essential part of the modern commercial automobile industry. Vehicle handling and stability are determined by the yaw rate and body slip of the vehicle. This paper is a comparative study of a nonlinear vehicle stability control algorithms for steering control based on two different controllers i.e. fuzzy logic based controller and PID controller. A full vehicle 14DOF model was made in Simulink to simulate an actual vehicle. The control algorithms are based on a two-track 7-DOF model with a non-linear tire model based on Pacejka “Magic tire formula”, which was used to establish the desired response of a full vehicle 14DOF model. It was found that the fuzzy logic-based control algorithm demonstrated an overall superior performance characteristic than a PID based control algorithm; this includes a significant decrease in time lag and overshoot.
Technical Paper

Design and Development of a Dry Sump Lubrication System for a Formula SAE Race Car

2019-01-09
2019-26-0026
A Formula student team aims to develop and improve their designs every year, as far as the powertrain aspect is considered performance output and enhancement is the primary aim, and for engine to perform better, the health of the engine is the most important parameter; hence the lubrication system of the vehicles powertrain should be improved to get the most out of the engine. The primary challenge for the development of a new lubrication system was the inability to replicate the performance given by stock wet sump with the self-designed custom dry sump. However, the advantages can outnumber the cons of implementing a custom dry sump lubrication system. The work brought together in this paper highlights the meticulous design procedure for implementing a custom made dry sump system onto a 4-cylinder in-line Honda CBR600RR engine.
Technical Paper

Combined Effects of Injection Timing and Fuel Injection Pressure on Performance, Combustion and Emission Characteristics of a Direct Injection Diesel Engine Numerically Using CONVERGE CFD Tool

2017-07-10
2017-28-1953
The infliction of rigorous emission norms across the world has made the automobile industry to focus and dwell upon researches to reduce the emissions from internal combustion engines, namely diesel engines. Variation in fuel injection timing has better influence on reduction of engine exhaust emissions. This papers deals with the variation of fuel injection timing along with fuel injection pressure numerically on a 4 stroke, single cylinder, and direct injection diesel engine running at full load condition using CONVERGE CFD tool. As the piston and bowl geometry considered in this work is symmetric, only 60 degree sector of the piston cylinder assembly is considered for numerical simulation over complete 360 degree model.
Technical Paper

Analytical Investigation of Fan Shroud on a Thermal Heat Exchanger for Automotive Applications

2017-07-10
2017-28-1951
Thermal management is one of the most challenging and innovative aspects of the automotive industry. The efficiency of the vehicle cooling framework unequivocally relies upon the air stream through the radiator core. Significant advances in thermal management are being embraced in the field of radiator material and coolant. The radiator shouldn't be exclusively credited for the reliable cooling of the engine. There are other auto parts that play an essential role in keeping engine temperature at a manageable level. The fan-shroud assembly is an important component of the cooling system. While the fan is responsible for drawing in air, the fan shroud's job is to ensure uniform air distribution to the radiator core. By assisting airflow in the engine compartment the fan shroud helps in dismissing excess heat from the engine. This assembly also prevents the recirculation of heated air through the cooling fan.
Technical Paper

Correlating the Experiment and Fluid Structure Interaction Results of a Suction Valve Model from a Hermetic Reciprocating Compressor

2017-07-10
2017-28-1948
The present work is concentrated to study the effect of varying inlet pressures on the dynamics of the suction valve obtained from a hermetic reciprocating compressor. The effect of valve functioning on the efficiency of a compressor is highly acceptable. Rather than the delivery valve, the suction valve has a significant impact on the compressor efficiency. The reed valve in a hermetic compressor is a cantilever type arrangement. The valve operates due to the pressure difference between the suction muffler and the cylinder. The numerical analysis which includes Fluid-structure interaction is used in the present study. The flow and structural domain employed in the present study are modelled with Solidworks 15.0. The fluid structure interaction analysis is a combination of ANSYS Fluent and ANSYS structural. These two are coupled with a system coupling in ANSYS Workbench 16.0. The numerical results obtained from the simulation are validated with the experimental data.
Technical Paper

Influence of Coating Thickness and Operating Parameters on the Tribological Characteristics of Inconel 625 Components Fabricated Using DMD

2017-07-10
2017-28-1972
Direct Metal Deposition (DMD) is a rapid prototyping technique used to fabricate and repair metallic prototypes. It can be used in the production of complex geometries and unique parts. In functional automotive applications wear characteristics hold key importance. In the present study, an analysis on the influence of various parameters (coating thickness, load and temperature) on the wear characteristics of Direct Metal Deposited (DMD) Inconel 625 coating has been carried out using a Design of Experiments (DOE). ANOVA calculations were performed to find out which of these parameters showed significant influence on the wear properties. It was found that load was the most significant parameter influencing the wear characteristics .Similarly load was found to be most influencing parameter for co efficient of friction. The trend was found to follow when verified at 30 second, 3 minutes, 60 minutes and 120 minutes.
Technical Paper

Structural Analysis of Electric Vehicle Transmission - Mounts and Casing for Different Materials

2017-07-10
2017-28-1961
The main objective of the study is to design and analyze casing and supports of a transmission system for an electric vehicle. The system comprises of motors as the power source, constant mesh gear box coupled with limited slip differential as the power transmitting source. The space occupied by the transmission system is a foremost constraint in designing the system. The wear and tear in the system is caused by the gear meshing process and transmission error which lead to failure of the transmission system. This internal excitation also produces a dynamic mesh force, which is transmitted to the casing and mounts through shafts and bearings. In order to overcome such issues in a transmission system, a gear box casing, differential mounts and motor mounts have been designed by the use of CAD-modeling software “SOLIDWORKS”. The designs were imported to FEA software “ANSYS” for carrying out static structural analysis.
Technical Paper

Design and Development of Cooling System for a Formula SAE Race Car

2018-04-03
2018-01-0079
In Formula Student, the vehicle working parameters are quite disparate from that of a commercially designed vehicle. The inability of teams to incorporate the atypical running conditions in their design causes multiple unforeseen issues. One such condition where the teams fail to improvise upon is the cooling system. Due to the high performance requirement of the competition, multiple teams participating face recurring heating problems. Maximum efficiency from a combustion vehicle can only be achieved when the cooling system is designed to handle the increasing power demand. This paper brings forth a detailed study on the intricate design of the cooling system. The problem has been approached using both theoretical and simulation models. Firstly, NTU-ℇ method was used to calculate the overall heat transfer coefficient and the temperature drop through the radiator core.
Technical Paper

An Upper Bound Elemental Technique for Load Prediction of Axisymmetric Hot Forged Specimens

2017-01-10
2017-26-0168
Forging is a metal forming process involving shaping of metal by the application of compressive forces using hammer or press. Forging load of equipment is an important function of forging process and the prediction of the same is essential for selection of appropriate equipment. In this study a hot forging material i.e. 42CrMo4 steel is selected which is used in automotive components like axle, crank shaft. Hot forging experiments at 750°C are carried out on cylindrical specimens of aspect ratio 0.75 and 1.5 with true height strain (ln (ho/hf)) of 0.6. Forging load for the experiments is calculated using slab and upper bound deformation models as well as Metal forming simulation using commercially available FEA software. The upper bound models with 30% deviation from the simulation results are found to be more accurate compared to the slab models.
Technical Paper

Investigations on Computational Meshing Techniques of FSAE Space Frame Chassis

2020-09-02
2020-01-5081
The FSAE is a world-renowned competition, in which students from across the globe compete against each other. The chassis is the main framework of the car, which is inherently responsible for accommodating all the components. The chassis is broadly classified into two types—monocoque and spaceframe. The FSAE chassis is of spaceframe type. The chassis also provides structural rigidity to the body of the car. It was observed through literature study that very minimal amount of research has been done on analyzing and validating the chassis by applying the different meshing techniques, namely 1D, 2D, and 3D. The mesh quality is very essential to obtain precise results and hence, effective methods for creating the mesh have been dealt with in this article. This study is on new investigations on different meshing techniques that can be implemented on an FSAE chassis.
Technical Paper

Modeling and Simulation for Hybrid Electric Vehicle with Parallel Hybrid Braking System for HEV

2018-07-09
2018-28-0097
A model for Hybrid electric vehicle power train with parallel hybrid braking system has been constructed. The hybrid vehicle utilized is based on integrated motor assist power train developed by Honda co utilized in Honda Insight car. The model is implemented using empirical formulation and power control schemes. A power control strategy based on throttle position (% throttle) and brake pedal position (% braking) is used. It incorporates the parallel hybrid braking system for the hybrid electric vehicle. The model allows for real time evaluation of wide range of parameters in vehicle operation as HEV without parallel hybrid braking system (PHBS) and with PHBS. Due to regenerative braking the structure design and control of braking system for HEV is different from conventional vehicle. The PHBS is the good option to provide safety of the vehicle and simultaneously recover reasonable amount of braking energy.
Technical Paper

Topology Optimization of Landing Gear for Additive Manufacturing

2020-09-25
2020-28-0389
In the pioneering sectors of design and development, industries are looking for computer integrated solutions for product development; especially in aerospace industries where the demands for reduction in the development cycles and prototyping iterations. Generative design and topology optimization are the recent tools for achieving the desired design solutions. Topology optimization aims to find an ideal structural configuration within the given design domain with various constraints, objectives, and boundary conditions. In this study, topology optimization is used as a design tool in the development phase of a component. An efficient methodology is developed based on topology optimization for regeneration of a tertiary components. The topology optimization approach used in this research is divided into three main stages: modelling, optimization and regeneration.
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