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Journal Article

Method for Estimating Time to Collision at Braking in Real-World, Lead Vehicle Stopped Rear-End Crashes for Use in Pre-Crash System Design

2011-04-12
2011-01-0576
This study presents a method for determining the time to collision (TTC) at which a driver of the striking vehicle in a real-world, lead vehicle stopped (LVS) rear-end collision applied the brakes. The method employs real-world cases that were extracted from the National Automotive Sampling System / Crashworthiness Data System (NASS / CDS) years 2000 to 2009. Selected cases had an Event Data Recorder (EDR) recovered from the striking vehicle that contained pre-crash vehicle speed and brake application. Of 59 cases with complete EDR records, 12 cases (20%) of drivers appeared not to apply the brakes at all prior to the collision. The method was demonstrated using 47 rear-end cases in which there was driver braking. The average braking deceleration for those cases with sufficient vehicle speed information was found to be 0.52 g's. The average TTC that braking was initiated at was found to vary in the sample population from 1.1 to 1.4 seconds.
Journal Article

Validation of Event Data Recorders in High Severity Full‑Frontal Crash Tests

2013-04-08
2013-01-1265
This study evaluates the accuracy of 41 Event Data Recorders (EDR) extracted from model year 2012 General Motors, Chrysler, Ford, Honda, Mazda, Toyota, and Volvo vehicles subjected to New Car Assessment Program 56 kph full-frontal barrier crash tests. The approach was to evaluate (1) the vehicle longitudinal change in velocity or delta-V (ΔV) as measured by EDRs in comparison with the high-precision accelerometers mounted onboard test vehicles and (2) the accuracy of pre-crash speed, seatbelt buckle status, and frontal airbag deployment status. On average the absolute error for pre-crash speed between the EDR and reference instrumentation was only 0.58 kph, or 1.0% of the nominal impact speed. In all cases in which the EDRs recorded the seatbelt buckle status of the driver or right front passenger, the modules correctly reported that the occupants were buckled. EDRs reported airbag deployment correctly in all of the tests.
Technical Paper

Has Electronic Stability Control Reduced Rollover Crashes?

2019-04-02
2019-01-1022
Vehicle rollovers are one of the more severe crash modes in the US - accounting for 32% of all passenger vehicle occupant fatalities annually. One design enhancement to help prevent rollovers is Electronic Stability Control (ESC) which can reduce loss of control and thus has great promise to enhance vehicle safety. The objectives of this research were (1) to estimate the effectiveness of ESC in reducing the number of rollover crashes and (2) to identify cases in which ESC did not prevent the rollover to potentially advance additional ESC development. All passenger vehicles and light trucks and vans that experienced a rollover from 2006 to 2015 in the National Automotive Sampling System Crashworthiness Database System (NASS/CDS) were analyzed. Each rollover was assigned a crash scenario based on the crash type, pre-crash maneuver, and pre-crash events.
Journal Article

Validation of Event Data Recorders in Side-Impact Crash Tests

2014-04-01
2014-01-0503
This study evaluated the accuracy of 75 Event Data Recorders (EDRs) extracted from model year 2010-2012 Chrysler, Ford, General Motors, Honda, Mazda, and Toyota vehicles subjected to side-impact moving deformable barrier crash tests. The test report and vehicle-mounted accelerometers provided reference values to assess the EDR reported change in lateral velocity (delta-v), seatbelt buckle status, and airbag deployment status. Our results show that EDRs underreported the reference lateral delta-v in the vast majority of cases, mimicking the errors and conclusions found in some longitudinal EDR accuracy studies. For maximum lateral delta-v, the average arithmetic error was −3.59 kph (−13.8%) and the average absolute error was 4.05 kph (15.9%). All EDR reports that recorded a seatbelt buckle status data element correctly recorded the buckle status at both the driver and right front passenger locations.
Technical Paper

Accuracy of Translations Obtained by 2013 GIT Tool on 2010-2012 Kia and Hyundai EDR Speed and Delta V Data in NCAP Tests

2014-04-01
2014-01-0502
Kia and Hyundai released publicly available tools in the spring of 2013 to read model year (MY) 2013 vehicle event data recorders (EDRs). By empirical testing, this study determined the tools also read data from some 2010-2012 models as EDRs were phased in by the manufacturer. Fifty-four (54) MY 2010-2012 airbag control module EDRs from the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration's (NHTSA) New Car Assessment Program (NCAP) crash tests were downloaded direct-to-module. The vehicles analyzed were exposed to frontal, side moving deformable barrier (MDB), and side pole tests. The EDR data was compared to the reference instrumentation for speed and Delta V data. Other data elements were also tabulated but are not evaluated for accuracy because they were not fully exercised during the crash tests, the reference instrumentation was not available, or they were outside the scope of this paper.
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