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Technical Paper

Development of a Multi-Disciplinary Optimization Framework for Nonconventional Aircraft Configurations in PACELAB APD

1 Most traditional methods and equations for estimating the structural and nonstructural weights and aerodynamics used at the aircraft conceptual design phase are empirical relations developed for conventional tube-and-wing aircraft. In a computation-heavy design process, such as Multidisciplinary Design and Optimization (MDO) simplicity of calculation is paramount, and for conventional configurations the aforementioned approaches work well enough for conceptual design. But, for non-traditional designs such as strut-braced winged aircraft, empirical data is generally not available and the usual methods can no longer apply. One solution to this is a movement toward generalized physics-based methods that can apply equally well to conventional or non-traditional configurations.
Technical Paper

Enhanced Low-Order Model with Radiation for Total Temperature Probe Analysis and Design

Analysis and design of total temperature probes for accurate measurements in hot, high-speed flows remains a topic of great interest in aerospace propulsion and a number of other engineering areas. Despite an extensive prior literature on the subject, prediction of error sources from convection, conduction and radiation is still an area of great concern. For hot-flow conditions, the probe is normally mounted in a cooled support, leading to substantial axial conduction along the length of the probe. Also, radiation plays a very important role in most hot, high-speed conditions. One can apply detailed computational methods for simultaneous convection, conduction and radiation heat transfer, but such approaches are not suitable for rapid, routine analysis and design studies. So, there is still a place for low-order approximate methods, and that is the subject of this paper.