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Technical Paper

Identification of Road Surface Friction for Vehicle Safety Systems

2014-04-01
2014-01-0885
A vehicle's response is predominately defined by the tire characteristics as they constitute the only contact between the vehicle and the road; and the surface friction condition is the primary attribute that determines these characteristics. The friction coefficient is not directly measurable through any sensor attachments in production-line vehicles. Therefore, current chassis control systems make use of various estimation methods to approximate a value. However a significant challenge is that these schemes require a certain level of perturbation (i.e. excitation by means of braking or traction) from the initial conditions to converge to the expected values; which might not be the case all the time during a regular drive.
Journal Article

Road Profile Estimation for Active Suspension Applications

2015-04-14
2015-01-0651
The road profile has been shown to have significant effects on various vehicle conditions including ride, handling, fatigue or even energy efficiency; as a result it has become a variable of interest in the design and control of numerous vehicle parts. In this study, an integrated state estimation algorithm is proposed that can provide continuous information on road elevation and profile variations, primarily to be used in active suspension controls. A novel tire instrumentation technology (smart tire) is adopted together with a sensor couple of wheel attached accelerometer and suspension deflection sensor as observer inputs. The algorithm utilizes an adaptive Kalman filter (AKF) structure that provides the sprung and unsprung mass displacements to a sliding-mode differentiator, which then yields to the estimation of road elevations and the corresponding road profile along with the quarter car states.
Technical Paper

A Methodology for Accounting for Uneven Ride Height in Soft Suspensions with Large Lateral Separation

2009-10-06
2009-01-2920
This study pertains to motion control algorithms using statistical calculations based on relative displacement measurements, in particular where the rattle space is strictly limited by fixed end-stops and a load leveling system that allows for roll to go undetected by the sensors. One such application is the cab suspension of semi trucks that use widely-spaced springs and dampers and a load leveling system that is placed between the suspensions, near the center line of the cab. In such systems it is possible for the suspension on the two sides of the vehicle to settle at different ride heights due to uneven loading or the crown of the road. This paper will compare the use of two moving average signals (one positive and one negative) to the use of one root mean square (RMS) signal, all calculated based on the relative displacement measurement.
Technical Paper

Avoiding the Pitfalls in Motorsports Data Acquisition

2008-12-02
2008-01-2987
Restrictions on track testing, combined with advances in technology, have contributed to an increased dependence on sensors and data acquisition for diagnosing problems and improving performance in motorsports vehicles. This dependence has created a new set of challenges for race engineers to collect quality data from a vehicle at the track. Successful 7- or 8-post shaker rig testing is highly dependent on the quality of the data acquired at the track. An improperly configured data acquisition system can actually be worse than a faulty sensor. This paper highlights a few of the most common problems in motorsports data acquisition: aliasing and sample rate selection. The effects of these problems are described for typical suspension sensors such as accelerometers, shock potentiometers, load cells, and laser ride height sensors. An experimental case study is presented to explain the implications of these problems.
Journal Article

Reliable Infrastructural Urban Traffic Monitoring Via Lidar and Camera Fusion

2017-03-28
2017-01-0083
This paper presents a novel infrastructural traffic monitoring approach that estimates traffic information by combining two sensing techniques. The traffic information can be obtained from the presented approach includes passing vehicle counts, corresponding speed estimation and vehicle classification based on size. This approach uses measurement from an array of Lidars and video frames from a camera and derives traffic information using two techniques. The first technique detects passing vehicles by using Lidars to constantly measure the distance from laser transmitter to the target road surface. When a vehicle or other objects pass by, the measurement of the distance to road surface reduces in each targeting spot, and triggers detection event. The second technique utilizes video frames from camera and performs background subtraction algorithm in each selected Region of Interest (ROI), which also triggers detection when vehicle travels through each ROI.
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