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Technical Paper

Assessment of High-Temperature Encapsulants for Planar Packages

Seven encapsulants with operating temperatures up to 250°C were surveyed for use in planar packages for wide-bandgap dice. Two of the encapsulants failed processability test because they were not able to flow, and another two failed because they induced voids or cracks after curing. The dielectric results of the remaining three encapsulants showed that both dielectric strength and permittivity decreased almost 40% when the temperature was increased up to 250°C. As the three encapsulants were used to encapsulate a power module, it was proven that all of them could protect the package from early breakdown caused by the poor dielectric strength of air.
Technical Paper

Reheating and Sterilization Technology for Food, Waste and Water: Design and Development Considerations for Package and Enclosure

Long-duration space missions require high-quality, nutritious foods, which will need reheating to serving temperature, or sterilization on an evolved planetary base. The package is generally considered to pose a disposal problem after use. We are in the process of development of a dual-use package wherein the food may be rapidly reheated in situ using the technology of ohmic heating. We plan to make the container reusable, so that after food consumption, the package is reused to contain and sterilize waste. This approach will reduce Equivalent System Mass (ESM) by using a compact heating technology, and reducing mass requirements for waste storage. Preliminary tests of the package within a specially-designed ohmic heating enclosure show that ISS menu item could easily be heated using ohmic heating technology. Mathematical models for heat transfer were used to optimize the layout of electrodes to ensure uniform heating of the material within the package.
Technical Paper

Predicting Driving Postures and Seated Positions in SUVs Using a 3D Digital Human Modeling Tool

3D digital human modeling (DHM) tools for vehicle packaging facilitate ergonomic design and evaluation based on anthropometry, comfort, and force analysis. It is now possible to quickly predict postures and positions for drivers with selected anthropometry based on ergonomics principles. Despite their powerful visual representation technology for human movements and postures, these tools are still questioned with regard to the validity of the output they provide, especially when predictions are made for different populations. Driving postures and positions of two populations (i.e. North Americans and Koreans) were measured in actual and mock-up SUVs to investigate postural differences and evaluate the results provided by a DHM tool. No difference in driving postures was found between different stature groups within the same population. Between the two populations, however, preferred angles differed for three joints (i.e., ankle, thigh, and hip).
Technical Paper

Probability-Based Methods for Fatigue Analysis

Modern fatigue analysis techniques, that can provide reliable estimates of the service performance of components and structures, are finding increasing use in vehicle development programs. A major objective of such efforts is the prediction of the field performance of a fleet of vehicles as influenced by the host of design, manufacturing, and performance variables. An approach to this complex problem, based on the incorporation of probability theory in established life prediction methods, is presented. In this way, quantitative estimates of the lifetime distribution of a population are obtained based on anticipated, or specified, variations in component geometry, material processing sequences, and service loading. The application of this approach is demonstrated through a case study of an automotive transmission component.