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Journal Article

Method for Estimating Time to Collision at Braking in Real-World, Lead Vehicle Stopped Rear-End Crashes for Use in Pre-Crash System Design

2011-04-12
2011-01-0576
This study presents a method for determining the time to collision (TTC) at which a driver of the striking vehicle in a real-world, lead vehicle stopped (LVS) rear-end collision applied the brakes. The method employs real-world cases that were extracted from the National Automotive Sampling System / Crashworthiness Data System (NASS / CDS) years 2000 to 2009. Selected cases had an Event Data Recorder (EDR) recovered from the striking vehicle that contained pre-crash vehicle speed and brake application. Of 59 cases with complete EDR records, 12 cases (20%) of drivers appeared not to apply the brakes at all prior to the collision. The method was demonstrated using 47 rear-end cases in which there was driver braking. The average braking deceleration for those cases with sufficient vehicle speed information was found to be 0.52 g's. The average TTC that braking was initiated at was found to vary in the sample population from 1.1 to 1.4 seconds.
Technical Paper

Study on Squeeze Mode Magneto-Rheological Engine Mount with Robust H-Infinite Control

2011-04-12
2011-01-0757
Magneto-rheological fluid squeeze mode investigations at CVeSS have shown that MR fluids show large force capabilities in squeeze mode. A novel MR squeeze mount was designed and built at CVeSS, and a dynamic mathematical model was developed, which considered the inertial effect and was validated by the test data. A variant engine mount that will be used for isolating vibration, based on the MR squeeze mode is proposed in the paper. The mathematical governing equations of the mount are derived to account for its operation with MR squeeze mode. The design method of a robust H✓ controller is addressed for the squeeze mount subject to parameter uncertainties in the damping and stiffness. The controller parameter can be derived from the solution of bilinear matrix inequalities (BMIs). The displacement transmissibility is constrained to be no more than 1.05 with this robust H✓ controller. The MR squeeze mount has a very large range of force used to isolate the vibration.
Technical Paper

Model-Based Design of a Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicle Control Strategy

2013-04-08
2013-01-1753
The Hybrid Electric Vehicle Team (HEVT) of Virginia Tech is participating in the 2011-2014 EcoCAR 2 competition in which the team is tasked with re-engineering the powertrain of a GM donated vehicle. The primary goals of the competition are to reduce well to wheels (WTW) petroleum energy use (PEU) and reduce WTW greenhouse gas (GHG) and criteria emissions while maintaining performance, safety, and consumer acceptability. To meet these goals HEVT has designed a series parallel plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) with multiple modes of operation. This paper will first cover development of the control system architecture with a dual CAN bus structure to meet the requirements of the vehicle architecture. Next an online optimization control strategy to minimize fuel consumption will be developed. A simple vehicle plant model will then be used for software-in-the-loop (SIL) testing to improve fuel economy.
Technical Paper

Developing a Compact Continuous-State Markov Chain for Terrain Road Profiles

2013-04-08
2013-01-0629
Accurate terrain models provide the chassis designer with a powerful tool to make informed design decisions early in the design process. It is beneficial to characterize the terrain as a stochastic process, allowing limitless amounts of synthetic terrain to be created from a small number of parameters. A continuous-state Markov chain is proposed as an alternative to the traditional discrete-state chain currently used in terrain modeling practice. For discrete-state chains, the profile transitions are quantized then characterized by a transition matrix (with many values). In contrast, the transition function of a continuous-state chain represents the probability density of transitioning between any two states in the continuum of terrain heights. The transition function developed in this work uses a location-scale distribution with polynomials modeling the parameters as functions of the current state.
Journal Article

Control Strategy for the Excitation of a Complete Vehicle Test Rig with Terrain Constraints

2013-04-08
2013-01-0671
A unique concept for a multi-body test rig enabling the simulation of longitudinal, steering and vertical dynamics was developed at the Institute for Mechatronic Systems (IMS) at TU Darmstadt. A prototype of this IMS test rig is currently being built. In conjunction with the IMS test rig, the Vehicle Terrain Performance Laboratory (VTPL) at Virginia Tech further developed a full car, seven degree of freedom (7 DOF) simulation model capable of accurately reproducing measured displacement, pitch, and roll of the vehicle body due to terrain excitation. The results of the 7 DOF car model were used as the reference input to the multi-body IMS test rig model. The goal of the IMS/VTPL joint effort was to determine whether or not a controller for the IMS test rig vertical actuator could accurately reproduce wheel displacements due to different measured terrain constraints.
Technical Paper

Validation of a Driver Recovery Model Using Real-World Road Departure Cases

2013-04-08
2013-01-0723
Predicting driver response to road departure and attempted recovery is a challenging but essential need for estimating the benefits of active safety systems. One promising approach has been to mathematically model the driver steering and braking inputs during departure and recovery. The objective of this paper is to compare a model developed by Volvo, Ford, and UMRTI (VFU) through the Advanced Crash Avoidance Technologies (ACAT) Program against a set of real-world departure events. These departure events, collected by Hutchinson and Kennedy, include the vehicle's off road trajectory in 256 road departure events involving passenger vehicles. The VFU-ACAT model was exercised for left side road departures onto the median of a divided highway with a speed limit of 113 kph (70 mph). At low departure angles, the VFU-ACAT model underpredicted the maximum lateral and longitudinal distances when compared to the departure events measured by Hutchinson and Kennedy.
Journal Article

Using Objective Vehicle-Handling Metrics for Tire Performance Evaluation and Selection

2013-04-08
2013-01-0743
This paper outlines the development of a simulation-based process for assessing the handling performance of a given set of tires on a specific vehicle. Based on force and moment data, a Pacejka tire model was developed for each of the five sets of tires used in this study. To begin with, simple handling metrics including under-steer gradient were calculated using cornering stiffness derived from the Pacejka model. This Pacejka tire model was subsequently combined with a 3DOF non-linear vehicle model to create a simulation model in MATLAB/Simulink®. Other handling metrics were calculated based on simulation results to step and sinusoidal (General Motors Company) steering inputs. Calculated performance metrics include yaw velocity overshoot, yaw velocity response time, lateral acceleration response time and steering sensitivity. In addition to this, the phase lag in lateral acceleration and yaw rate of the vehicle to a sinusoidal steering input were also calculated.
Journal Article

Characterization of Lane Departure Crashes Using Event Data Recorders Extracted from Real-World Collisions

2013-04-08
2013-01-0730
Lane Departure Warning (LDW) is a production active safety system that can warn drivers of an unintended departure. Critical in the design of LDW and other departure countermeasures is understanding pre-crash driver behavior in crashes. The objective of this study was to gain insight into pre-crash driver behavior in departure crashes using Event Data Recorders (EDRs). EDRs are units equipped on many passenger vehicles that are able to store vehicle data, including pre-crash data in many cases. This study used 256 EDRs that were downloaded from GM vehicles involved in real-world lane departure collisions. The crashes were investigated as part of the NHTSA's NASS/CDS database years 2000 to 2011. Nearly half of drivers (47%) made little or no change to their vehicle speed prior to the collision and slightly fewer decreased their speed (43%). Drivers who did not change speed were older (median age 41) compared to those who decreased speed (median age 27).
Journal Article

Finite Element Modeling of Tire Transient Characteristics in Dynamic Maneuvers

2014-04-01
2014-01-0858
Studying the kinetic and kinematics of the rim-tire combination is very important in full vehicle simulations, as well as for the tire design process. Tire maneuvers are either quasi-static, such as steady-state rolling, or dynamic, such as traction and braking. The rolling of the tire over obstacles and potholes and, more generally, over uneven roads are other examples of tire dynamic maneuvers. In the latter case, tire dynamic models are used for durability assessment of the vehicle chassis, and should be studied using high fidelity simulation models. In this study, a three-dimensional finite element model (FEM) has been developed using the commercial software package ABAQUS. The purpose of this study is to investigate the tire dynamic behavior in multiple case studies in which the transient characteristics are highly involved.
Journal Article

A Direct Yaw Control Algorithm for On- and Off-Road Yaw Stability

2011-04-12
2011-01-0183
Models for off-road vehicles, such as farm equipment and military vehicles, require an off-road tire model in order to properly understand their dynamic behavior on off-road driving surfaces. Extensive literature can be found for on-road tire modeling, but not much can be found for off-road tire modeling. This paper presents an off-road tire model that was developed for use in vehicle handling studies. An on-road, dry asphalt tire model was first developed by performing rolling road force and moment testing. Off-road testing was then performed on dirt and gravel driving surfaces to develop scaling factors that explain how the lateral force behavior of the tire will scale from an on-road to an off-road situation. The tire models were used in vehicle simulation software to simulate vehicle behavior on various driving surfaces. The simulated vehicle response was compared to actual maximum speed before sliding vs. turning radius data for the studied vehicle to assess the tire model.
Technical Paper

Performance Characterization and Modeling of Shim Stack Assemblies in Vehicle Shock Absorbers

2010-10-05
2010-01-1904
A detailed study of the effects of shim stack assemblies on performance of hydraulic mono-tube vehicle shock absorbers is presented. Currently, shim stacks are modeled as blow-off valves in hydraulic models of shock absorbers. Using this simplification, important material and geometrical properties of shim stacks cannot be studied and their effects cannot be understood on overall damper performance. In this paper, shim stack deflection is investigated and a mathematical model is presented for shim stack deflection. This model is then incorporated into the mathematical model of a hydraulic damper and various properties of shim stack and their effects on damper characteristics are studied. Energy and variational methods were used to develop the mathematical model of the shim stack. The mathematical model also takes into account the sliding effects of the shims on each other when the shim stack is deflected.
Journal Article

Optimal Direct Yaw Controller Design for Vehicle Systems with Human Driver

2011-09-13
2011-01-2149
Dynamic game theory brings together different features that are keys to many situations in control design: optimization behavior, the presence of multiple agents/players, enduring consequences of decisions and robustness with respect to variability in the environment, etc. In the presented methodology, vehicle stability is represented by a cooperative dynamic/difference game such that its two agents (players), namely, the driver and the direct yaw controller (DYC), are working together to provide more stability to the vehicle system. While the driver provides the steering wheel control, the DYC control algorithm is obtained by the Nash game theory to ensure optimal performance as well as robustness to disturbances. The common two-degree of freedom (DOF) vehicle handling performance model is put into discrete form to develop the game equations of motion.
Journal Article

Anthropomimetic Traction Control: Quarter Car Model

2011-09-13
2011-01-2178
Human expert drivers have the unique ability to combine correlated sensory inputs with repetitive learning to build complex perceptive models of the vehicle dynamics as well as certain key aspects of the tire-ground interface. This ability offers significant advantages for navigating a vehicle through the spatial and temporal uncertainties in a given environment. Conventional traction control algorithms utilize measurements of wheel slip to help insure that the wheels do not enter into an excessive slip condition such as burnout. This approach sacrifices peak performance to ensure that the slip limits are generic enough suck that burnout is avoided on a variety of surfaces: dry pavement, wet pavement, snow, gravel, etc. In this paper, a novel approach to traction control is developed using an anthropomimetic control synthesis strategy.
Journal Article

Vehicle System Simulator: Development and Validation

2011-09-13
2011-01-2166
A graphical user interface (GUI) toolbox called Vehicle System Simulator (VSS) is developed in MATLAB to ease the use of this vehicle model and hopefully encourage its widespread application in the future. This toolbox uses the inherent MATLAB discrete-time solvers and is mainly based on Level-2 s-function design. This paper describes its built-in vehicle dynamics model based on multibody dynamics approach and nonlinear tire models, and traction/braking control systems including Cruise Control and Differential Braking systems. The built-in dynamics model is validated against CarSim 8 and the simulation results prove its accuracy. This paper illustrates the application of this new MATLAB toolbox called Vehicle System Simulator and discusses its development process, limitations, and future improvements.
Technical Paper

Development of a Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicle Control Strategy Employing Software-In-the-Loop Techniques

2013-04-08
2013-01-0160
In an age of growing complexity with regards to vehicle control systems, verification and validation of control algorithms is a rigorous and time consuming process. With the help of rapid control prototyping techniques, designers and developers have cost effective ways of validating controls under a quicker time frame. These techniques involve developments of plant models that replicate the systems that a control algorithm will interface with. These developments help to reduce costs associated with construction of prototypes. In standard design cycles, iterations were needed on prototypes in order to finalize systems. These iterations could result in code changes, new interfacing, and reconstruction, among other issues. The time and resources required to complete these were far beyond desired. With the help of simulated interfaces, many of these issues can be recognized prior to physical integration.
Journal Article

Impact of Intelligent Transportation Systems on Vehicle Fuel Consumption and Emission Modeling: An Overview

2014-01-15
2013-01-9094
Climate change due to greenhouse gas emissions has led to new vehicle emissions standards which in turn have led to a call for vehicle technologies to meet these standards. Modeling of vehicle fuel consumption and emissions emerged as an effective tool to help in developing and assessing such technologies, to help in predicting aggregate vehicle fuel consumption and emissions, and to complement traffic simulation models. The paper identifies the current state of the art on vehicle fuel consumption and emissions modeling and its utilization to test the environmental impact of the Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS)’ measures and to evaluate transportation network improvements. The study presents the relevant models to ITS in the key classifications of models in this research area. It demonstrates that the trends of vehicle fuel consumption and emissions provided by current models generally do satisfactorily replicate field data trends.
Technical Paper

Vehicle Design and Implementation of a Series-Parallel Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle

2013-10-14
2013-01-2492
The Hybrid Electric Vehicle Team (HEVT) of Virginia Tech has achieved the Year 2 goal of producing a 65% functional mule vehicle suitable for testing and refinement, while maintaining the series-parallel plug-in hybrid architecture developed during Year 1. Even so, further design and expert consultations necessitated an extensive redesign of the rear powertrain and front auxiliary systems packaging. The revised rear powertrain consists of the planned Rear Traction Motor (RTM), coupled to a single-speed transmission. New information, such as the dimensions of the high voltage (HV) air conditioning compressor and the P2 motor inverter, required the repackaging of the hybrid components in the engine bay. The P2 motor/generator was incorporated into the vehicle after spreading the engine and transmission to allow for the required space.
Journal Article

Location-Aware Adaptive Vehicle Dynamics System: Brake Modulation

2014-04-01
2014-01-0079
A Location-Aware Adaptive Vehicle Dynamics System (LAAVDS) is developed to assist the driver in maintaining vehicle handling capabilities through various driving maneuvers. An integral part of this System is an Intervention Strategy that uses a novel measure of handling capability, the Performance Margin, to assess the need to intervene. Through this strategy, the driver's commands are modulated to affect desired changes to the Performance Margin in a manner that is minimally intrusive to the driver's control authority. Real-time implementation requires the development of computationally efficient predictive vehicle models. This work develops one means to alter the future vehicle states: modulating the driver's brake commands. This control strategy must be considered in relationship to changes in the throttle commands. Three key elements of this strategy are developed in this work.
Journal Article

Location-Aware Adaptive Vehicle Dynamics System: Throttle Modulation

2014-04-01
2014-01-0105
A Location-Aware Adaptive Vehicle Dynamics System (LAAVDS) is developed to assist the driver in maintaining vehicle handling capabilities through various driving maneuvers. An Intervention Strategy uses a novel measure of handling capability, the Performance Margin, to assess the need to intervene. The driver's commands are modulated to affect desired changes to the Performance Margin in a manner that is minimally intrusive to the driver's control authority. Real-time implementation requires the development of computationally efficient predictive vehicle models which is the focus of this work. This work develops one means to alter the future vehicle states: modulating the driver's throttle commands. First, changes to the longitudinal force are translated to changes in engine torque based on the current operating state (torque and speed) of the engine.
Technical Paper

Robust Optimal Control of Vehicle Lateral Motion with Driver-in-the-Loop

2012-09-24
2012-01-1903
Dynamic “Game Theory” brings together different features that are keys to many situations in control design: optimization behavior, the presence of multiple agents/players, enduring consequences of decisions and robustness with respect to variability in the environment, etc. In previous studies, it was shown that vehicle stability can be represented by a cooperative dynamic/difference game such that its two agents (players), namely, the driver and the vehicle stability controller (VSC), are working together to provide more stability to the vehicle system. While the driver provides the steering wheel control, the VSC command is obtained by the Nash game theory to ensure optimal performance as well as robustness to disturbances. The common two-degree of freedom (DOF) vehicle handling performance model is put into discrete form to develop the game equations of motion. This study focus on the uncertainty in the inputs, and more specifically, the driver's steering input.
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