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Technical Paper

Reliability Analysis of an Automotive Wheel Assembly

1993-03-01
930406
The incorporation of reliability theory into a fatigue analysis algorithm is studied. This probabilistic approach gives designers the ability to quantify “real world” variations existing in the material properties, geometry, and loading of engineering components. Such information would serve to enhance the speed and accuracy of current design techniques. An automobile wheel assembly is then introduced as an example of the applications of this durability/reliability design package.
Technical Paper

An Improved Method for Determining the Hydrocarbon Fraction of Diesel Particulates by Vacuum Oven Sublimation

1987-11-01
872136
A new vacuum-oven sublimation method (PVOS) for measuring the hydrocarbon fraction of diesel particulates has been developed to overcome problems with the standard vacuum-oven sublimation technique (VOS). VOS gave extremely low (negative at 15:1 A/F) results for diesel particulate samples taken at medium to high load (25:1 or lower A/F). The low results are due to the adsorption by the samples of trace amounts of continuously regenerated (from test samples and oven seals) heavy-hydrocarbon oven contaminants. PVOS corrects the problem by using a nitrogen gas purge to sweep hydrocarbons from the oven during testing. Comparisons among PVOS, VOS and methylene chloride extraction (MCE) over a range of A/F and engine speeds showed that PVOS results correlate more closely with MCE results than do results determined by the standard VOS technique.
Technical Paper

Probability-Based Methods for Fatigue Analysis

1992-02-01
920661
Modern fatigue analysis techniques, that can provide reliable estimates of the service performance of components and structures, are finding increasing use in vehicle development programs. A major objective of such efforts is the prediction of the field performance of a fleet of vehicles as influenced by the host of design, manufacturing, and performance variables. An approach to this complex problem, based on the incorporation of probability theory in established life prediction methods, is presented. In this way, quantitative estimates of the lifetime distribution of a population are obtained based on anticipated, or specified, variations in component geometry, material processing sequences, and service loading. The application of this approach is demonstrated through a case study of an automotive transmission component.
Technical Paper

Aerodynamic Evaluation of Two Maglev Designs

1996-02-01
960905
Wind tunnel tests were conducted on two variations of a Grumman design for a Maglev vehicle The tests employed a moving belt system simulation of an elevated track which was designed to properly simulate the flowfield for Maglev vehicle configurations of the EMS type where the vehicle undercarriage partially wraps around or encloses the track Lift and drag forces and vehicle pitching moments were measured over a wide range of Reynolds number and the results compared with computations made by Grumman The tests also included measurements of flowfield velocity and turbulence profiles downstream of the vehicles and pressure measurements over the vehicle nose The test results showed a slight difference between the two designs with a possible reason to give preference to one of the designs due to reduced pitching moment.
Technical Paper

CALVIN: Winner of the Fourth Annual Unmanned Ground Vehicle Design Competition

1997-02-24
970174
The Unmanned Ground Vehicle Competition is jointly sponsored by the SAE, the Association for Unmanned Vehicle Systems (AUVS), and Oakland University. College teams, composed of both undergraduate and graduate students, build autonomous vehicles that compete by navigating a 139 meter outdoor obstacle course. The course, which includes a sand pit and a ramp, is defined by painted continuous or dashed boundary lines on grass and pavement. The obstacles are arbitrarily placed, multi-colored plastic-wrapped hay bales. The vehicles must be between 0.9 and 2.7 meters long and less than 1.5 meters wide. They must be either electric-motor or combustion-engine driven and must carry a 9 kilogram payload. All computational power, sensing and control equipment must be carried on board the vehicle. The technologies employed are applicable in Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS).
Technical Paper

Low Cycle Fatigue Properties of Al-Si Eutectic Alloys

1997-02-24
970704
The effect of Si-phase on the axial, low-cycle fatigue behavior of Al-Si eutectic alloys was investigated using test specimens prepared from alloys processed either by continuous casting or extrusion. Results indicate that, for continuous casting, all fatigue fractures resulted from shear-type crack initiation and propagation with an attendant shortening of fatigue life. For extruded material, fatigue cracks originated in the Si phase. In both instances, initiation and growth mechanisms were essentially identical to those observed in high-cycle fatigue. Cyclic properties obtained from phenomenological models are presented and discussed.
Technical Paper

Design of an All-Revolute, Linkage-Type, Constant-Velocity Coupling

1995-09-01
952133
This paper describes a design methodology for a three degree-of-freedom, linkage-based constant-velocity coupling. This coupling resembles the Clemens coupling patented in 1872 and has evolved from the authors' previous research in parallel mechanisms. This coupling contains only revolute joints and is therefore likely to be more durable and less prone to manufacturing errors than conventional higher-pair couplings. The kinematic configuration, based on the symmetric double octahedral Variable Geometry Truss mechanism (figure 2), has many inherent traits that make it ideal for application to industrial uses. Its parallel design of simple links and revolute joints provide it with high strength, rigidity, and light-weight characteristics. It has a link-joint construction that allows its geometry to be varied for specific applications, such as producing high angular deflection between the input and output shafts.
Technical Paper

A Two-Step Combustion Model of Iso-Octane for 3D CFD Combustion Simulation in SI Engines

2019-04-02
2019-01-0201
The application of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) for three-dimensional (3D) combustion analysis coupled with detailed chemistry in engine development is hindered by its expensive computational cost. Chemistry computation may occupy as much as 90% of the total computational cost. In the present paper, a new two-step iso-octane combustion model was developed for spark-ignited (SI) engine to maximize computational efficiency while maintaining acceptable accuracy. Starting from the model constants of an existing global combustion model, the new model was developed using an approach based on sensitivity analysis to approximate the results of a reference skeletal mechanism. The present model involves only five species and two reactions and utilizes only one uniform set of model constants. The validation of the new model was performed using shock tube and real SI engine cases.
Technical Paper

Unconventional Truck Chassis Design with Multi-Functional Cross Members

2019-04-02
2019-01-0839
An unconventional conceptual design of truck chassis with multi-functional cross-members is proposed, and an optimization framework is developed to optimize its structure to minimize mass while satisfying stiffness and modal frequency constraints. The side rails are C-sectional channels of variable height and were divided into six sections, each with different thickness distribution for the flanges and the web. The gearbox cross-member and the intermediate cross-members are compressed-air cylinders, and hence they act as multi-functional components. The dimensions and thickness of the side rails and the air-tank cross members are defined by a set of parameters which are considered as design variables in the optimization problem. The structure consists of three additional fixed cross-members which are modeled using beam elements. The limits of the design variables are decided while considering manufacturing limits.
Technical Paper

Simulation and Bench Testing of a GM 5.3L V8 Engine

2017-03-28
2017-01-1259
The Hybrid Electric Vehicle Team of Virginia Tech (HEVT) is currently modeling and bench testing powertrain components for a parallel plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV). The custom powertrain is being implemented in a 2016 Chevrolet Camaro for the EcoCAR 3 competition. The engine, a General Motors (GM) L83 5.3L V8 with Active Fuel Management (AFM) from a 2014 Silverado, is of particular importance for vehicle integration and functionality. The engine is one of two torque producing components in the powertrain. AFM allows the engine to deactivate four of the eight cylinders which is essential to meet competition goals to reduce petroleum energy use and greenhouse gas emissions. In-vehicle testing is performed with a 2014 Silverado on a closed course to understand the criteria to activate AFM. Parameters required for AFM activation are monitored by recording vehicle CAN bus traffic.
Technical Paper

Emissions, Fuel Economy, and Performance of a Class 8 Conventional and Hybrid Truck

2015-04-14
2015-01-1083
Emissions, fuel economy, and performance are determined over a light and a heavy driving cycle designed to represent the vehicles in-use driving patterns. The vehicles are 2010 class 8 Freightliner tractor trucks equipped with Cummins engines with Selective Catalytic Reduction and Diesel Particulate Filter emission control systems. The hybrid has lower carbon dioxide emissions, better fuel economy, and nitrogen oxide emissions statistically the same as the conventional. The CO emissions are well below the standards for both vehicles, but they are higher from the hybrid. The higher CO emissions for the hybrid are primarily related to the cooling of the Diesel Oxidation Catalyst (DOC) during the standard 20 minute key-off soak between repeats of the driving cycles. With a 1 minute key-off soak the CO emissions from the hybrid are negative.
Technical Paper

An Illustrative Look at Energy Flow through Hybrid Powertrains for Design and Analysis

2015-04-14
2015-01-1231
Improving fuel economy and overall vehicle emissions are very important in today's society with strict new regulations throughout the world. To help in the education process for the next generation of design engineers, this paper seeks to define a powertrain model created and developed to help users understand the basics behind hybrid vehicles and the effects of these advanced technologies. One of the main goals of this research is to maintain a simplified approach to model development. The 1 Hz model described within this work aims to allow energy to be simply and understandably traced through a hybrid powertrain. Through the use of a “backwards” energy tracking method, demand for a drive cycle is found, and, after tracing the energy demand through each powertrain component, the resulting fuel to meet vehicle demand and associated powertrain losses is found.
Technical Paper

Using Surface Texture Parameters to Relate Flat Belt Laboratory Traction Data to the Road

2015-04-14
2015-01-1513
Indoor laboratory tire testing on flat belt machines and tire testing on the actual road yield different results. Testing on the machine offers the advantage of repeatability of test conditions, control of the environmental condition, and performance evaluation at extreme conditions. However, certain aspects of the road cannot be reproduced in the laboratory. It is thus essential to understand the connection between the machine and the road, as tires spend all their life on the road. This research, investigates the reasons for differences in tire performance on the test machine and the road. The first part of the paper presents a review on the differences between tire testing in the lab and on the road, and existing methods to account for differences in test surfaces.
Journal Article

Target Population for Intersection Advanced Driver Assistance Systems in the U.S.

2015-04-14
2015-01-1408
Intersection crashes are a frequent and dangerous crash mode in the U.S. Emerging Intersection Advanced Driver Assistance Systems (I-ADAS) aim to assist the driver to mitigate the consequences of vehicle-to-vehicle crashes at intersections. In support of the design and evaluation of such intersection assistance systems, characterization of the road, environment, and drivers associated with intersection crashes is necessary. The objective of this study was to characterize intersection crashes using nationally representative crash databases that contained all severity, serious injury, and fatal crashes. This study utilized four national crash databases: the National Automotive Sampling System, General Estimates System (NASS/GES); the NASS Crashworthiness Data System (CDS); and the Fatality Analysis Reporting System (EARS) and the National Motor Vehicle Crash Causation Survey (NMVCCS).
Technical Paper

Advanced Castings Made Possible Through Additive Manufacturing

2017-03-28
2017-01-1663
Binder jetting of sand molds and cores for metal casting provides a scalable and efficient means of producing metal components with complex geometric features made possible only by Additive Manufacturing. Topology optimization software that can mathematically determine the optimum placement of material for a given set of design requirements has been available for quite some time. However, the optimized designs are often not manufacturable using standard metal casting processes due to undercuts, backdraft and other issues. With the advent of binder-based 3D printing technology, sand molds and cores can be produced to make these optimized designs as metal castings.
Technical Paper

Enhanced Low-Order Model with Radiation for Total Temperature Probe Analysis and Design

2017-09-19
2017-01-2047
Analysis and design of total temperature probes for accurate measurements in hot, high-speed flows remains a topic of great interest in aerospace propulsion and a number of other engineering areas. Despite an extensive prior literature on the subject, prediction of error sources from convection, conduction and radiation is still an area of great concern. For hot-flow conditions, the probe is normally mounted in a cooled support, leading to substantial axial conduction along the length of the probe. Also, radiation plays a very important role in most hot, high-speed conditions. One can apply detailed computational methods for simultaneous convection, conduction and radiation heat transfer, but such approaches are not suitable for rapid, routine analysis and design studies. So, there is still a place for low-order approximate methods, and that is the subject of this paper.
Journal Article

Admissible Shape Parameters for a Planar Quasi-Static Constraint Mode Tire Model

2017-08-17
2017-01-9683
Computationally efficient tire models are needed to meet the timing and accuracy demands of the iterative vehicle design process. Axisymmetric, circumferentially isotropic, planar, discretized models defined by their quasi-static constraint modes have been proposed that are parameterized by a single stiffness parameter and two shape parameters. These models predict the deformed shape independently from the overall tire stiffness and the forces acting on the tire, but the parameterization of these models is not well defined. This work develops an admissible domain of the shape parameters based on the deformation limitations of a physical tire, such that the tire stiffness properties cannot be negative, the deformed shape of the tire under quasi-static loading cannot be dominated by a single harmonic, and the low spatial frequency components must contribute more than higher frequency components to the overall tire shape.
Technical Paper

EcoRouting Strategy Using Variable Acceleration Rate Synthesis Methodology

2018-04-16
2018-01-5005
This paper focuses on the analysis of an EcoRouting system with minimum and maximum number of conditional stops. The effect on energy consumption with the presence and absence of road-grade information along a route is also studied. An EcoRouting system has been developed that takes in map information and converts it to a graph of nodes containing route information such as speed limits, stop lights, stop signs and road grade. A variable acceleration rate synthesis methodology is also introduced in this paper that takes into consideration distance, acceleration, cruise speed and jerk rate as inputs to simulate driver behavior on a given route. A simulation study is conducted in the town of Blacksburg, Virginia, USA to analyze the effects of EcoRouting in different driving conditions and to examine the effects of road grade and stop lights on energy consumption.
Technical Paper

Estimating Benefits of LDW Systems Applied to Cross-Centerline Crashes

2018-04-03
2018-01-0512
Objective: Opposite-direction crashes can be extremely severe because opposing vehicles often have high relative speeds. The most common opposite direction crash scenario occurs when a driver departs their lane driving over the centerline and impacts a vehicle traveling in the opposite direction. This cross-centerline crash mode accounts for only 4% of all non-junction non-interchange crashes but 25% of serious injury crashes of the same type. One potential solution to this problem is the Lane Departure Warning (LDW) system which can monitor the position of the vehicle and provide a warning to the driver if they detect the vehicle is moving out of the lane. The objective of this study was to determine the potential benefits of deploying LDW systems fleet-wide for avoidance of cross-centerline crashes. Methods: In order to estimate the potential benefits of LDW for reduction of cross-centerline crashes, a comprehensive crash simulation model was developed.
Technical Paper

Preliminary Estimates of Near Side Crash Injury Risk in Best Performing Passenger Vehicles

2018-04-03
2018-01-0548
The goal of this paper is to estimate near-side injury risk in vehicles with the best side impact performance in the U.S. New Car Assessment Program (NCAP). The longer-term goal is to predict the incidence of crashes and injury outcomes in the U.S. in a future fleet of the 2025-time frame after current active and passive safety countermeasures are fully implemented. Our assumption was that, by 2025, all new vehicles will have side impact passive safety performance equivalent to current U.S. NCAP five star ratings. The analysis was based on real-world crashes extracted from case years 2010-2015 in the National Automotive Sampling System / Crashworthiness Data System (NASS/CDS) in which front-row occupants of late-model vehicles (Model Year 2011+) were exposed to a near-side crash.
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