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Technical Paper

Noise Analysis of Automotive Alternators

1999-05-17
1999-01-1712
An extensive experimental study of noise generating mechanisms of two production models of automotive alternators is presented. It was established that aerodynamic noise (generated by cooling fans) is dominating at high speeds (above 3,000 rpm), while electromagnetic noise is the most intensive at low rpm. Two directions of noise reduction are proposed and validated: reduction of noise levels generated by alternators to be achieved by using axial flow fans for cooling instead of presently used bladed discs, and radical reduction of operating speed of alternators by using variable transmission ratio accessory drives.
Technical Paper

A Mathematical Model for Design and Production Verification Planning

1999-05-10
1999-01-1624
The paper focuses on various important decisions of verification and testing plans of the product during its design and production stages. In most of the product and process development projects, decisions on verification and testing are ad-hoc or based on traditions. Such decisions never guarantee the performance of the product as planned, during its whole life cycle. We propose an analytical approach to provide the concrete base for such crucial decisions of verification planning. Accordingly, a mathematical model is presented. Also, a case study of an automotive Electro-mechanical product is included to illustrate the application of the model.
Technical Paper

Direct Calculations of Cavitating Flows in Fuel Delivery Pipe by the Space-Time CE/SE Method

1999-10-25
1999-01-3554
In this paper, we report direct calculations of cavitating pipe flows by the method of Space-Time Conservation Element and Solution Element, or the CE/SE method for short. The tenet of the CE/SE method is treating space and time as one entity, and the calculation of flow properties is based on the local and global space-time flux conservation. As a contrast to the modern upwind schemes, no Riemann solver is used, thus the logic of the present scheme for cavitating flows is much simpler. Two numerical examples are reported in this paper: (1) a hydraulic shock problem, and (2) a cavitating pipe flow. For the hydraulic shock problem, we demonstrate the capability of the CE/SE method for capturing contact discontinuities in cavitating fluids. For the pipe flows, a two-phase homogeneous equilibrium cavitation model is employed. In both cases, numerical results compared favorably with the experimental data and analytical solution.
Technical Paper

Correlating the Diesel Spray Behavior to Nozzle Design

1999-10-25
1999-01-3555
This paper studies the effect of nozzle geometry on the flow characteristics inside a diesel fuel injection nozzle and correlates to the subsequent atomization process under different operating conditions, using simple turbulent breakup model. Two kinds of nozzles, valve covered orifice (VCO) and mini-SAC nozzle, with various nozzle design parameters were studied. The internal flow inside the nozzle was simulated using 3-D computational fluid dynamics software with k-ε turbulence model. The flow field at the nozzle exit was characterized by two parameters: the fuel discharge coefficient Cd and the initial amplitude parameter amp0. The latter parameter represents the turbulence characteristics of the exit flow. The effects of nozzle geometry on the mean velocity and turbulent energy distribution of the exit flow were also studied. The characteristics of the exit flow were then incorporated into the spray model in KIVA-II to study the effect of nozzle design on diesel spray behavior.
Technical Paper

A New Ignition Delay Formulation Applied to Predict Misfiring During Cold Starting of Diesel Engines

2000-03-06
2000-01-1184
A new formulation is developed for the ignition delay (ID) in diesel engines to account for the effect of piston motion on the global autoignition reaction rates. A differentiation is made between the IDe measured in engines and IDv, measured in constant volume vessels. In addition, a method is presented to determine the coefficients of the IDe correlation from actual engine experimental data. The new formulation for IDe is applied to predict the misfiring cycles during the cold starting of diesel engines at different low ambient temperatures. The predictions are compared with experimental results obtained on a multi-cylinder heavy-duty diesel engine.
Technical Paper

Diesel Engine Cold Start Combustion Instability and Control Strategy

2001-03-05
2001-01-1237
Combustion instability and white smoke emissions are serious problems during cold starting of diesel engines. In this investigation, a model has been applied to predict misfiring based on an analysis of the autoignition process. The effect of injection timing on combustion instability during the cold start transient, at different ambient temperatures is investigated, both theoretically and experimentally. Maps have been developed to show the zones where misfiring would occur. The experimental work was conducted on a direct injection heavy-duty diesel engine in a cold room. The room temperature covered a range from 21 ° C to -10 ° C. The cycle-by-cycle data analysis was made and results plotted on the developed maps. The experimental results correlated fairly well with the model prediction. Based on the analysis, a new strategy for cold starting can be developed to reduce combustion instability and white smoke emissions.
Technical Paper

Active Damping of Engine Idle Speed Oscillation by Applying Adaptive Pid Control

2001-03-05
2001-01-0261
This paper investigates the use of an adaptive proportional-integral-derivative (APID) controller to reduce a combustion engine crankshaft speed pulsation. Both computer simulations and engine test rig experiments are used to validate the proposed control scheme. The starter/alternator (S/A) is used as the actuator for engine speed control. The S/A is an induction machine. It produces a supplemental torque source to cancel out the fast engine torque variation. This machine is placed on the engine crankshaft. The impact of the slowly varying changes in engine operating conditions is accounted for by adjusting the APID controller parameters on-line. The APID control scheme tunes the PID controller parameters by using the theory of adaptive interaction. The tuning algorithm determines a set of PID parameters by minimizing an error function. The error function is a weighted combination of the plant states and the required control effort.
Technical Paper

A Hybrid System Solution of the Interrupt Latency Compatibility Problem

1999-03-01
1999-01-1099
Microprocessors and microcontrollers are now widely used in automobiles. Microprocessor systems contain sources of interrupt and interrupt service routines, which are software components executed in response to the assertion of an interrupt in hardware. A major problem in designing the software of microprocessor systems is the analytical treatment of interrupt latency. Because multiple interrupt service routines are executed on the same CPU, they compete for the CPU and interfere with each other's latency requirements. Here, interrupt latency is defined as the delay between the assertion of the interrupt in hardware and the start of execution of the associated interrupt service routine. It is estimated that 80% of intermittent bugs in small microprocessor software loads are due to improper treatment of interrupts. Until this work, there is no analytic method for analyzing a particular system to determine if it may violate interrupt latency requirements.
Technical Paper

Modeling of Dynamic Responses of Injectors for an Automotive Fuel Rail System

1999-03-01
1999-01-0795
This paper presents a computer model for simulating dynamic responses inside an injector of an automotive fuel rail system. The injector contains a filter at the top, a coil spring in the middle, and a needle and orifices at the bottom. The equations of motion for unsteady one-dimensional flow are derived for the fluid flowing through the injector. The needle motion is described by a second order ordinary differential equation. The forces exerted on the needle include the magnetic force that controls the opening and closing of the injector and the coil spring force. To account for the loss of kinetic energy, we define two loss factors Ka and Kb. The former describes the loss of kinetic energy as fluid enters the injector through the filter at the top, and the latter depicts that as fluid is ejected into a large chamber through the passage between the needle and the needle seat and across four orifices at the bottom of the injector.
Technical Paper

A Visualization Study of Liquid Fuel Distribution and Combustion Inside a Port-Injected Gasoline Engine Under Different Start Conditions

2000-03-06
2000-01-0242
High-speed video of combustion processes and cylinder pressure traces were obtained from a single-cylinder optical-accessible engine with a production four-valve cylinder head to study the mixture formation and flame propagation characteristics at near-stoichiometric start condition. Laser-sheet Mie-scattering images were collected for liquid droplet distributions inside the cylinder to correlate the mixture formation process with the combustion results. A dual-stream (DS) injector and a quad-stream (QS) injector were used to study the spray dispersion effect on engine starting, under different injection timings, throttle valve positions, engine speeds, and intake temperatures. It was found that most of the fuel under open-valve injection (OVI) conditions entered the cylinder as droplet mist. A significant part of the fuel droplets hit the far end of the cylinder wall at the exhaust-valve side.
Technical Paper

A Warpage Measurement System with Large Dynamic Range for Boards with Components

2000-03-06
2000-01-0458
A new algorithm for carrier removal, a key step in the Fourier transform method of fringe pattern analysis, is presented in this paper. The accuracy of frequency estimations is critical to carrier removal to avoid potential significant errors in the recovered phase. A new algorithm on Fourier transform and curve fitting technique is developed. To avoid an ill-conditioned result in solving the least-square problem, an orthogonal polynomial curve fitting algorithm is developed. A new system that combines projected grating moiré (PM) with shadow moiré (SM), recently designed and built with large dynamic range for both component level and board level warpage measurement for the reliability study of electronic packaging materials and structures, is presented and demonstrated.
Technical Paper

A Unified Approach to Solder Joint Life Prediction

2000-03-06
2000-01-0454
A unified approach has been developed and applied to solder joint life prediction in this paper, which indicates a breakthrough for solder joint reliability simulation. It includes the material characterization of solder alloys, the testing of solder joint specimens, a unified viscoplastic constitutive framework with damage evolution, numerical algorithm development and implementation, and experimental validation. The emphasis of this report focuses on the algorithm development and experimental verification of proposed viscoplasticity with damage evolution.
Technical Paper

Modeling Techniques Using Boundary Element Methods

1984-04-01
840762
The boundary integral equation method (BIEM) of analysis was applied to problems involving thick plates and stress concentration regions. In unsubstructured form the BIEM produced results in agreement with exact solutions from elasticity theory for plates with length/thickness ratios as large as 40, for the case of bending by terminal couples. Using substructuring, CP times were reduced. CP times for the CDC CYBER 205 were obtained, and the influence of varying integration orders was discussed. The BIEM was also found to produce accurate stress concentration factors for tension, bending and torsion of a stepped round bar with a circumferential shoulder fillet.
Technical Paper

Modeling Considerations in Use of Boundary Element Methods With Substructures

1984-04-01
840735
The boundary integral equation method (BIEM) of analysis was applied to problems involving beams, thick plates and stress concentration regions. Beam and plate problems were considered to provide guidelines for use of the three-dimensional BIEM to analyze brackets and other components which have “solid like” regions as well as regions which are “beam or plate like”. In unsubstructured form the BIEM produced results in excellent agreement with exact solutions from elasticity theory for plates with length/thickness ratios as large as 40. Loading cases included bending by terminal couples and flexure by terminal loads. Using substructuring, CP times were reduced. CP times for both the IBM 3084 and the CDC CYBER 205 were obtained, the influence of varying integration orders discussed, and techniques to assess the accuracy of computed results were described.
Technical Paper

Reliability Analysis of an Automotive Wheel Assembly

1993-03-01
930406
The incorporation of reliability theory into a fatigue analysis algorithm is studied. This probabilistic approach gives designers the ability to quantify “real world” variations existing in the material properties, geometry, and loading of engineering components. Such information would serve to enhance the speed and accuracy of current design techniques. An automobile wheel assembly is then introduced as an example of the applications of this durability/reliability design package.
Technical Paper

Lower Limb Biomechanics

1986-10-01
861924
Normal motion of the lower limbs is discussed in this paper. The biomechanics of human gait has been studied experimentally using an instrumented walkway and analytically by means of mathematical models. Experimental methods for measuring ground reaction forces and limb kinematics are discussed. If limb kinematics are known, they can be used to compute the resultant joint forces and moments, using equations of motion which are algebraic in form. To obtain limb kinematics from the differential equations of motion, the problem is generally redundant, the degree of redundancy being equal to the number of unknown joint moments. The computation of muscle, ligament and bone contact forces from known resultant loads is also a redundant problem because there are more unknowns than there are available equations. For these there is no general consensus regarding the best objective function to be minimized.
Technical Paper

Prediction of Pressure Fluctuations Inside an Automotive Fuel Rail System

1999-03-01
1999-01-0561
A computer model is developed for predicting pressure fluctuations inside an automotive electronic fuel rail system, which consists of six injectors connected in series through pipelines and a pressure regulator. The pressure fluctuations are mainly caused by opening and closing of injectors fired in a particular order. The needles that control the opening and closing of the injectors are modeled by mass- spring-dashpot systems, whose equations of motion are governed by a second order ordinary differential equations. A similar second order ordinary differential equation is used to describe the motion of the membrane with nonlinear stiffness inside the pressure regulator. The responses of injectors and pressure regulator are coupled by unsteady one-dimensional flow through the pipelines. The pressure fluctuations are also required to satisfy a one-dimensional damped wave equation. To validate this computer model, pressure fluctuations inside injectors and pipelines are calculated.
Technical Paper

Modeling the Effects of EGR and Injection Pressure on Emissions in a High-Speed Direct-Injection Diesel Engine

2001-03-05
2001-01-1004
Experimental data is used in conjunction with multi-dimensional modeling in a modified version of the KIVA-3V code to characterize the emissions behavior of a high-speed, direct-injection diesel engine. Injection pressure and EGR are varied across a range of typical small-bore diesel operating conditions and the resulting soot-NOx tradeoff is analyzed. Good agreement is obtained between experimental and modeling trends; the HSDI engine shows increasing soot and decreasing NOx with higher EGR and lower injection pressure. The model also indicates that most of the NOx is formed in the region where the bulk of the initial heat release first takes place, both for zero and high EGR cases. The mechanism of NOx reduction with high EGR is shown to be primarily through a decrease in thermal NOx formation rate.
Technical Paper

Transient Cavitating Flow Simulations Inside a 2-D VCO Nozzle Using the Space-Time CE/SE Method

2001-05-07
2001-01-1983
Cavitating flows inside a two-dimensional valve covered orifice (VCO) nozzle were simulated by using the Space-Time Conservation Element and Solution Element (CE/SE) method in conjunction with a homogeneous equilibrium cavitation model. As a validation for present model, cavitation over a NACA0015 hydrofoil was predicted and compared with previous simulation results as well as experimental observations. The model was then used to investigate the effects on internal cavitating flows of different nozzle design parameters, such as the hole size, hole aspect-ratio, hydro-erosion radius, and orifice inclination. Under different conditions, cavitating flows through fuel injectors generated hydraulic flip, supercavitation, full cavitation, and cyclical cavitation phenomena, which are commonly observed in experiments.
Technical Paper

Testing the Validity and Limitations of the Severity Index

1970-02-01
700901
The head acceleration pulses obtained from monkey concussion, cadaver skull fracture (t = 0.002 sec), and football helmet experiments (0.006< t< 0.011 sec) have been subjected to injury hazard assessment by the Severity Index method. Although not directly applicable, the method correlates well with degree of monkey concussion. The range of Severity Indices for acceleration pulses obtained during impact to nine cadavers, all of which produced a linear fracture, was 540-1760 (1000 is danger to life) with a median value of 910. The helmet experiments showed good correlation between the Severity Index and the Wayne State University tolerance curve. These helmet tests also showed that a kinematics chart with curves of velocity change, stopping distance, average head acceleration, and time, with a superimposed Wayne State tolerance curve, can be useful in injury assessment.
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