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Technical Paper

Key Aspects of Electronics Automotive Components Testing

2013-10-07
2013-36-0569
Electronics components are estimated to be between 9 to 15 % of a total vehicle cost, and this trend will remain strong for the next years. The amount of electronics content in a vehicle has grown steadily since 1970's, and as a result, development challenges such as testing and validation are a key aspect of its overall development costs. Testing costs can amount easily to US$ 500 k in medium complex automotive parts of a vehicle (e.g. instrument cluster) depending on a specific OEM customer demand, and this on top of limited regional laboratory capacity can also lead to increased testing time. The goal of this paper is to outline key aspects of electronics in vehicle components testing, including overall costs and timing, and propose a lean approach to optimize such costs & timing. The key aspects of such optimization include not only resources, but also laboratories and upfront OEM customer planning.
Technical Paper

Fuel Rail Pressure Relief

2006-04-03
2006-01-0626
A major source of engine-off evaporative hydrocarbon emissions is fuel injector leakage. Methods and devices to relieve fuel rail pressure after key-off, and thus reduce leakage are introduced. Impact on fuel manifold re-pressurization is considered. The basic principles governing this behavior: fuel thermal expansion, fuel vapor pressure, and dissolved gasses in liquid are elaborated. Fuel pressure relief data is shown.
Journal Article

Gasoline Fuel Injector Spray Measurement and Characterization - A New SAE J2715 Recommended Practice

2008-04-14
2008-01-1068
With increasingly stringent emissions regulations and concurrent requirements for enhanced engine thermal efficiency, a comprehensive characterization of the automotive gasoline fuel spray has become essential. The acquisition of accurate and repeatable spray data is even more critical when a combustion strategy such as gasoline direct injection is to be utilized. Without industry-wide standardization of testing procedures, large variablilities have been experienced in attempts to verify the claimed spray performance values for the Sauter mean diameter, Dv90, tip penetration and cone angle of many types of fuel sprays. A new SAE Recommended Practice document, J2715, has been developed by the SAE Gasoline Fuel Injection Standards Committee (GFISC) and is now available for the measurement and characterization of the fuel sprays from both gasoline direct injection and port fuel injection injectors.
Technical Paper

Inaudible Knock and Partial-Burn Detection Using In-Cylinder Ionization Signal

2003-10-27
2003-01-3149
Internal combustion engines are designed to maximize power subject to meeting exhaust emission requirements and minimizing fuel consumption. Maximizing engine power and fuel economy is limited by engine knock for a given air-to-fuel charge. Therefore, the ability to detect engine knock and run the engine at its knock limit is a key for the best power and fuel economy. This paper shows inaudible knock detection ability using in-cylinder ionization signals over the entire engine speed and load map. This is especially important at high engine speed and high EGR rates. The knock detection ability is compared between three sensors: production knock (accelerometer) sensor, in-cylinder pressure and ionization sensors. The test data shows that the ionization signals can be used to detect inaudible engine knock while the conventional knock sensor cannot under some engine operational conditions.
Technical Paper

Virtual Key Life Tests of Instrument Panels for Product Development

2004-03-08
2004-01-1482
Visteon has developed a CAE procedure to qualify instrument panel (IP) products under the vehicle key life test environments, by employing a set of CAE simulation and durability techniques. The virtual key life test method simulates the same structural configuration and the proving ground road loads as in the physical test. A representative dynamic road load profile model is constructed based on the vehicle proving ground field data. The dynamic stress simulation is realized by employing the finite element transient analysis. The durability evaluation is based on the dynamic stress results and the material fatigue properties of each component. The procedure has helped the IP engineering team to identify and correct potential durability problems at earlier design stage without a prototype. It has shown that the CAE virtual key life test procedure provides a way to speed up IP product development, to minimize prototypes and costs.
Technical Paper

Accelerated Useful Life Testing and Field Correlation Methods

2002-03-04
2002-01-1175
The purpose of this paper is to present a common sense practical method for establishing and demonstrating reliability objectives. In particular, this paper will: describe an operational definition of “useful life”, describe an accelerated laboratory test procedure for demonstrating that products meet the useful life objective, and describe a method for demonstrating correlation between customer usage and laboratory testing.
Technical Paper

Correlation Study of Exhaust Manifold - Lab Test Results vs Customer Fleet Results

2002-03-04
2002-01-1317
The purpose of this study is to develop specifically a correlation between Exhaust Manifold Cracking Laboratory Test results and 150,000 mile customer fleet usage test results. The study shows that the exhaust manifold design meets the reliability requirements of 10 years or 150,000 miles, given 90th percentile customer usage without an evidence of cracking or audible leaks. This correlation between the Lab Test and the customer Fleet results has been expressed as an acceleration factor. An acceleration factor is the ratio of how much quicker the engine dynamometer test ( i.e. Lab Test ) can accumulate the effect of customer usage over time versus the customers themselves. The acceleration factor is provided for useful life time period of 10 years or 150,000 miles. The recommended acceleration factor, determined in this study, is 38 to 1, comparing the engine dynamometer test ( i.e. Lab Test ) results to 150,000 mile modular truck customer fleet field results.
Technical Paper

CAE Virtual Test of Air Intake Manifolds Using Coupled Vibration and Pressure Pulsation Loads

2005-04-11
2005-01-1071
A coupled vibration and pressure loading procedure has been developed to perform a CAE virtual test for engine air intake manifolds. The CAE virtual test simulates the same physical test configuration and environments, such as the base acceleration vibration excitation and pressure pulsation loads, as well as temperature conditions, for design validation (DV) test of air intake manifolds. The original vibration and pressure load data, measured with respect to the engine speed rpm, are first converted to their respective vibration and pressure power spectrum density (PSD) profiles in frequency domain, based on the duty cycle specification. The final accelerated vibration excitation and pressure PSD load profiles for design validation are derived based on the key life test (KLT) duration and reliability requirements, using the equivalent fatigue damage technique.
Technical Paper

Simulation of Pressure Pulsations in a Gasoline Injection System and Development of an Effective Damping Technology

2005-04-11
2005-01-1149
In today's search for a better fuel economy and lower emissions, it is essential to precisely control the injected fuel quantity, as demanded by the engine load, into each of the engine cylinders. In fuel injection systems, the pressure pulsations due to the rapid opening and closing of the injectors can cause uneven injected fuel amounts between cylinders. In order to develop effective techniques to reduce these pressure pulsations, it is crucial to have a good understanding of the dynamic characteristics of such fuel injection systems. This paper presents the benefits of using simulation as a tool to analyze the dynamic behaviors of a V8 gasoline injection system. The fuel system modeling, based on a one-dimensional (1D) lumped parameter approach, has been developed in the AMESim® environment. The comparison between the simulation results and the experimental data shows good agreement in fluid transient characteristics for both time and frequency domains.
Technical Paper

Acoustic Modeling and Radiated Noise Prediction for Plastic Air-Intake Manifolds

2003-05-05
2003-01-1448
Reliable prediction of the radiated noise due to the air pressure pulsation inside air-intake manifolds (AIM) is of significant interest in the automotive industry. A practical methodology to model plastic AIMs and a prediction process to compute the radiated noise are presented in this paper. The measured pressure at the engine inlet valve of an AIM is applied as excitation on an acoustic boundary element model of the AIM in order to perform a frequency response analysis. The measured air pressure pulsation is obtained in the crank-angle domain. This pressure is read into MATLAB and transformed into the frequency domain using the fast Fourier transform. The normal modes of the structure are computed in ABAQUS and a coupled analysis in SYSNOISE is launched to couple the boundary element model and the finite element model of the structure. The computed surface vibration constitutes the excitation for an acoustic uncoupled boundary element analysis.
Technical Paper

Occupant Knee Impact Simulations: A Parametric Study

2003-03-03
2003-01-1168
Occupant knee impact simulations are performed in the automotive industry as an integrated design process during the course of instrument panel (IP) development. All major automakers have different categories of dynamic testing methods as part of their design process in validating their designs against the FMVSS 208 requirement. This has given rise to a corresponding number of knee impact simulations performed at various stages of product development. This paper investigates the advantages and disadvantages of various types of these knee impact simulations. Only the knee load requirement portion of the FMVSS208 is considered in this paper.
Technical Paper

Development of a Fuel Efficient Multipurpose 75W-90 Gear Lubricant

2003-10-27
2003-01-1992
Automotive gear oil development has expanded beyond the historical requirements of emphasizing wear protection to encompass modern needs for fuel economy and limited slip frictional properties. This paper describes the development process of a new generation, fuel efficient gear lubricant for use in light duty vehicles. A systematic formulation approach was used, encompassing fluid viscometrics and additive optimization. Performance testing in both laboratory and vehicle tests is described. Though standard GL-5 tests were used to confirm oxidation, wear and corrosion performance, emphasis is given to those methods used for optimizing fuel economy.
Technical Paper

A Study on the Strength of Catalytic Converter Ultra Thin Wall Substrates

2003-03-03
2003-01-0662
Application of Ultra Thin Wall (UTW) ceramic substrates in the catalytic converter system requires the canner and component manufacturers to better understand the root cause and physics behind substrate breakage during the canning process. For this purpose, a ceramic substrate strength study for shoebox design has been conducted within Visteon Corporation. Computer Numerical Control (CNC) machined top and bottom fixtures, with identical inner surfaces as shoebox converter upper and lower shells, were used to crush mat wrapped substrates. Thin film pressure sensor technology enables the recording of substrate surface pressure during the compression process. Shell rib, washcoat, canning speed and cell density effects on substrate failure have been experimentally investigated. The development of a mathematical model helps to identify a better indicator to evaluate the substrate strength in the canning process and establish the strength for uncoated & coated substrates.
Technical Paper

MBT Timing Detection and its Closed-Loop Control Using In-Cylinder Pressure Signal

2003-10-27
2003-01-3266
MBT timing for an internal combustion engine is also called minimum spark timing for best torque or the spark timing for maximum brake torque. Unless engine spark timing is limited by engine knock or emission requirements at a certain operational condition, there exists an MBT timing that yields the maximum work for a given air-to-fuel mixture. Traditionally, MBT timing for a particular engine is determined by conducting a spark sweep process that requires a substantial amount of time to obtain an MBT calibration. Recently, on-line MBT timing detection schemes have been proposed based upon cylinder pressure or ionization signals using peak cylinder pressure location, 50 percent fuel mass fraction burn location, pressure ratio, and so on. Because these criteria are solely based upon data correlation and observation, both of them may change at different engine operational conditions. Therefore, calibration is still required for each MBT detection scheme.
Technical Paper

Model-Based Analysis and Tuning of Electronic Throttle Controllers

2004-03-08
2004-01-0524
This paper describes two electronic throttle controllers of Visteon Corporation with one already in production and the other currently under development. Analysis and tuning of the two controllers are described. The general structure of the controllers consists of a reference shaping subsystem and a proportional-plus-integral-plus-derivative(PID) controller supplemented with additional terms that deal with the nonlinearility of the electronic throttle body. Due to a friction cancellation term in the controller that minimizes the nonlinearity of the system, linear system analysis techniques are applied. The transfer functions of the electronic throttle body at six different operating conditions are derived. Analysis of the closed-loop dynamics is performed based on the plant and the controller transfer-functions. Controller fine-tuning is performed using frequency response techniques, MATLAB simulations and testing on the actual system.
Technical Paper

Model-based Closed-loop Control of Urea SCR Exhaust Aftertreatment System for Diesel Engine

2002-03-04
2002-01-0287
Based on our error budget analysis, the urea SCR aftertreatment system is uncontrollable under EPA 2007-emission level without an effective closed-loop control strategy. The objective of the closed-loop control is to improve transient response as well as reduce the steady state control error. But the inherent large dead time in the urea SCR aftertreatment system makes the closed-loop control a challenge. In this paper, an innovative closed-loop control architecture is introduced, which combines model-based feedforward control with variable gain-scheduling feedback control. Transient response is improved with the inverse-dynamic feedforward control and the variable-gain closed-loop control. The steady-state response is improved with the closed-loop control. Based on this new strategy, a controller is designed and validated under the simulation and test cell environment. Comparison with the baseline open-loop controller is also conducted. Finally, some conclusions are presented.
Technical Paper

Fuel Economy Improvements through Improved Automatic Transmission Warmup - Stand Alone Oil to Air (OTA) Transmission Cooling Strategy with Thermostatic Cold Flow Bypass Valve

2001-05-14
2001-01-1760
The stand alone oil to air (OTA) transmission cooling strategy with thermostatic cold flow bypass valve has been shown to be an effective means of improving the warmup of an automatic transmission. Improving the system warmup rate of an automatic transmission significantly improves its efficiency by reducing losses resulting from extremely viscous transmission fluid and can allow for calibration changes that improve overall transmission performance. Improved transmission efficiency in turn allows for improved engine efficiency and performance. The improvements obtained from increased transmission and engine efficiency result in an overall increase in vehicle fuel economy. Fuel economy and consumption are important parameters considered by the vehicle manufacturer and the customer. Fuel economy can be considered as important as reliability and durability.
Technical Paper

Vibration Test Specification for Automotive Products Based on Measured Vehicle Load Data

2006-04-03
2006-01-0729
A test load specification is required to validate an automotive product to meet the durability and design life requirements. Traditionally in the automotive industry, load specifications for design validation tests are directly given by OEMs, which are generally developed from an envelop of generic customer usage profiles and are, in most cases, over-specified. In recent years, however, there are many occasions that a proposed load specification for a particular product is requested. The particular test load specification for a particular product is generated based on the measured load data at its mounting location on the given type of vehicles, which contains more realistic time domain load levels and associated frequency contents. The measured time domain load is then processed to frequency domain test load data by using the fast Fourier transform and damage equivalent techniques.
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