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Technical Paper

Water Condensate Retention and “Wet” Fin Performance in Automotive Evaporators

2001-03-05
2001-01-1252
Water condensate retained inside an automotive evaporator has remained as one of the primary sources of unpleasant “odors”, which in turn can drive up the warranty cost for automotive manufacturers. The “wet” evaporator fin can also underperform due to the presence of condensate blocking the air passage. Moreover, condensate retention can be a potential factor of freezing up evaporators. Thus, an evaporator fin must be designed such that it can shed and drain water condensate as well as provide an excellent heat transfer capability. While the importance of water retention is well known, there seems lacking of a comprehensive way to evaluate the water retention characteristics of a particular product. In this work, attempts were made to answer four questions: (1) What is the mechanism that controls water condensate retention characteristics in an automotive evaporator? (2) Can different water retention evaluation methods reveal the same characteristics?
Technical Paper

Radiated Noise Prediction of Air Induction Systems Using Filter Seal Modeling and Coupled Acoustic-Structural Simulation Techniques

2007-04-16
2007-01-0253
In this paper, an analytical procedure for prediction of shell radiated noise of air induction systems (AIS) due to engine acoustic excitation, without a prototype and physical measurement, is presented. A set of modeling and simulation techniques are introduced to address the challenges to the analytical radiated noise prediction of AIS products. A filter seal model is developed to simulate the unique nonlinear stiffness and damping properties of air cleaner boxes. A finite element model (FEM) of the AIS assembly is established by incorporating the AIS structure, the proposed filter seal model and its acoustic cavity model. The coupled acoustic-structural FEM of the AIS assembly is then employed to compute the velocity frequency response of the AIS structure with respect to the air-borne acoustic excitations.
Technical Paper

A Filter Seal Model for Point Mobility Prediction of Air Induction Systems

2006-04-03
2006-01-1209
Virtual design validation of an air induction system (AIS) requires a proper finite element (FE) assembly model for various simulation based design tasks. The effect of the urethane air filter seal within an AIS assembly, however, still poses a technical challenge to the modeling of structural dynamic behaviors of the AIS product. In this paper, a filter seal model and its modeling approach for AIS assemblies are introduced, by utilizing the feature finite elements and empiric test data. A bushing element is used to model the unique nonlinear stiffness and damping properties of the urethane seal, as a function of seal orientation, preloading, temperature and excitation frequency, which are quantified based on the test data and empiric formula. Point mobility is used to character dynamic behaviors of an AIS structure under given loadings, as a transfer function in frequency domain.
Technical Paper

Control Method of Dual Motor-Based Steer-by-Wire System

2007-04-16
2007-01-1149
This paper describes a front road wheel steer-by-wire system with two actuator motors on the rack and pinion assembly to move the road wheels. Dual actuators are used to provide actuator redundancy and to enhance the fault tolerance capability. When one actuator faults or fails, the other actuator is designed to work independently and maintain full system performance. The paper emphasizes control method to implement the motion control for the front road wheel steer-by-wire system with two actuators on the common load. The proposed dual servo synchronization motion control implements the angle tracking for the road wheel reference input by controlling two actuators synchronously and cooperatively. It includes two servo feedback control loops to track the common reference input. The angular position error between two feedback loops is compensated using a synchronized compensator.
Technical Paper

CAE Virtual Door Slam Test for Plastic Trim Components

2003-03-03
2003-01-1209
Visteon has developed a CAE procedure to qualify plastic door trim assemblies under the vehicle door slam Key Life Test (KLT) environments. The CAE Virtual Door Slam Test (VDST) procedure simulates the environment of a whole door structural assembly, as a hinged in-vehicle door slam configuration. It predicts the durability life of a plastic door trim sub-assembly, in terms of the number of slam cycles, based on the simulated stresses and plastic material fatigue damage model, at each critical location. The basic theory, FEA methods and techniques employed by the VDST procedure are briefly described in this paper. Door trim project examples are presented to illustrate the practical applications and their results, as well as the correlation with the physical door slam KLTs.
Technical Paper

Application of DOE Methods to RPM-Domain Data for Hydraulic Steering Pump NVH Improvement

2003-05-05
2003-01-1431
The present work demonstrates the application of Design of Experiments (DOE) statistical methods to the design and optimization of a hydraulic steering pump for NVH performance. DOE methods were applied to RPM-domain data to examine the effect of several different factors, as well as the interactions between these factors, on pump NVH. Whereas most DOE analyses typically consider only a single response variable, the present work considered multiple response variables. Specifically, pump NVH performance curves for several pump rotational orders over a range of shaft speeds were analyzed. Thus, it was possible to determine the effect of the factors in question over the entire speed range of pump operation, rather than a single speed or setting. Statistical methods were applied to determine which factors and interactions had a significant effect on pump NVH. These factors were used to construct an empirical mathematical prediction model for NVH performance.
Technical Paper

Overview of Automotive Plastic Parts Molds Development of in Brazil

2003-11-18
2003-01-3565
In Brazil the market for plastic parts molds, in last few years had become very competitive, with several Vehicle Operations and a big number of a different models, and with today total market volume it means low volumes productions for each model. This market demands for good toolshops and at the same time a big pressure to reduce investments, one of the most important. Plastic components usage in the car, is increasing overtime, with new applications for Exterior, interior and powertrain, requiring new technologies for Injection molding processing and making molds to be more complex. The development of plastic parts in Brazil has its own characteristics, strengths and weaknesses. In fact a big and heterogeneous market. This paper intends to present an analysis of development of plastic parts in Brazil, considering the development of mold tooling locally, focusing the automotive market.
Technical Paper

Optimization and Robust Design of Heat Sinks for Automotive Electronics Applications

2004-03-08
2004-01-0685
The increasing power requirement for automotive electronics (radios, etc.), combined with ever-shrinking size and weight allowances, is creating a greater need for optimization and robust design of heat sinks. Not only does a heat sink directly affect the overall performance and reliability of a specific electronics application, but a well-designed, optimized heat sink can have other benefits - such as eliminating the requirement for special fans, reducing weight of the application, eliminating additional heat sink support structures, etc. Optimizing heat sink efficiency and thermal performance offers a challenge, due to the many competing design requirements. These requirements include effecting greater temperature reductions, accommodating vehicle packaging requirements and size limitations, generating a uniform heat distribution, etc., and all the while reducing the heat sink cost.
Technical Paper

CAE Considerations in the Modeling of Welded Joints

2005-04-11
2005-01-0512
Welding is one of the most commonly used fabrication method in various automotive applications. Welding is a metallurgical fusion process in which parts or work pieces to be joined are heated above their melting temperature and then solidified. Some of the effects of the welding include residual stresses and Heat Affected Zone (HAZ). A methodology is proposed to study the welding process using the commercial finite element software, ABAQUS. Non linear transient heat transfer analysis is used. Effects of heat energy input rate and heat input time on residual stresses and HAZ are determined.
Technical Paper

Vibration Assessment of a Slip-in-Tube Propshaft Through Correlated Analytical Model

2003-05-05
2003-01-1481
Analytical methods are used extensively in the automotive industry to validate the feasibility of component and assembly designs and their dynamic behavior. Correlation of analytical models with test data is an important step in this process. This paper discusses the Finite Element model of an innovative Slip-in-Tube Propshaft design. The Slip-in-Tube joint (slip joint) poses challenges for its dynamic simulation. This paper discusses the methods of simulating the joint and correlating it to experimental results. Also, the Noise and Vibration (NVH) characteristics of the Slip-in-Tube Propshaft design. In this paper, a Finite Element model of the proposed propshaft is developed using shell and beam element formulations. Each model is verified to optimize the feasibility of using accurate and computationally efficient elements for the dynamic analysis.
Technical Paper

Effect of Post Brazed Flux Residues of CAB Evaporators on the Consistency of Conversion Coating

2005-04-11
2005-01-1773
Evaporators for automotive air-conditioning systems are being coated externally to improve corrosion resistance, water drainage, and reduce potential odor concerns. The coating durability and efficiency in achieving its corrosion resistance depends on the coating uniformity and adhesion characteristics. Good coating adhesion on aluminum surface can be achieved after freeing the surface from the oxide and flux residues. Evaporators manufactured by the Controlled Atmosphere Brazing (CAB) process have flux residue remaining on the surface, the presence of which interferes with the coating process and also affects the performance of coated components. A methodology to quantify the effect of high Nocolok flux residue on heat exchanger coating uniformity has been presented.
Technical Paper

Localized Nonlinear Model of Plastic Air Induction Systems for Virtual Design Validation Tests

2005-04-11
2005-01-1516
Plastic air induction system (AIS) has been widely used in vehicle powertrain applications for reduced weight, cost, and improved engine performance. Physical design validation (DV) tests of an AIS, as to meet durability and reliability requirements, are usually conducted by employing the frequency domain vibration tests, either sine sweep or random vibration excitations, with a temperature cycling range typically from -40°C to 120°C. It is well known that under high vibration loading and large temperature range, the plastic components of the AIS demonstrate much higher nonlinear response behaviors as compared with metal products. In order to implement a virtual test for plastic AIS products, a practical procedure to model a nonlinear system and to simulate the frequency response of the system, is crucial. The challenge is to model the plastic AIS assembly as a function of loads and temperatures, and to evaluate the dynamic response and fatigue life in frequency domain as well.
Technical Paper

Design and Development of Light Weight Al Spindle

2002-03-04
2002-01-0676
The demand for improved vehicle fuel economy drives the auto engineers to look for opportunities in weight reduction of automotive systems and components. This paper presents inventions on the design and development of a lightweight spindle. In this new product, the spindle body is made from an Al alloy for a substantial weight reduction in comparison to the tradition iron spindle body. The shaft of the spindle is made from high strength steel to meet strength requirements. The design shows the unique feature of the joining area between the spindle body and shaft. The related joining process is applied to produce a strong joint between the two parts made of different materials. The testing results will be presented and discussed.
Technical Paper

DSS, The Driver Stability System of Visteon

2002-03-04
2002-01-0782
This paper introduces the Driver Stability System (DSS) at Visteon. DSS is a new active comfort / safety system for automobiles which controls the seat bolsters independently in real time to enhance the lateral support of the occupants. Under turning maneuvers, DSS reacts to the vehicle dynamics to provide an increased contact area between the occupants and their seats, allowing optimal occupant location with respect to such variables as steering wheel angle, lateral acceleration, yaw rate, and vehicle velocity. The lateral force compensation is directly coupled to the dynamic movement of vehicle chassis and the change of road profile. The system consists of the seat bolster assembly including DC motors, wheel speed sensors, steering wheel sensor, lateral accelerometer, yaw rate sensor, and electronic control unit (ECU). This paper also discusses the control concept of DSS and its realistic controller structure.
Technical Paper

Fully Recyclable Olefinic Instrument Panels

2002-03-04
2002-01-0310
Recycled resins can meet performance requirements on products which were initially designed for virgin materials. Olefinic instrument panel (I/P) scrap is being recycled from the Mazda Tribute and the Ford Escape into glove box bins. As a result, a quality part is being supplied to the customer and Visteon's Saline Plant has realized both increased plant operating efficiencies and landfill cost avoidance. The development process is described including: plant regrind sources, part molding and testing.
Technical Paper

A Study on the Strength of Catalytic Converter Ultra Thin Wall Substrates

2003-03-03
2003-01-0662
Application of Ultra Thin Wall (UTW) ceramic substrates in the catalytic converter system requires the canner and component manufacturers to better understand the root cause and physics behind substrate breakage during the canning process. For this purpose, a ceramic substrate strength study for shoebox design has been conducted within Visteon Corporation. Computer Numerical Control (CNC) machined top and bottom fixtures, with identical inner surfaces as shoebox converter upper and lower shells, were used to crush mat wrapped substrates. Thin film pressure sensor technology enables the recording of substrate surface pressure during the compression process. Shell rib, washcoat, canning speed and cell density effects on substrate failure have been experimentally investigated. The development of a mathematical model helps to identify a better indicator to evaluate the substrate strength in the canning process and establish the strength for uncoated & coated substrates.
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