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Technical Paper

Vw Lupo, the WorldS First 3-Liter Car

2000-11-01
2000-01-C044
After the success of the 4-cylinder 1.9-liter TDI and SDI direct-injection diesel engines in the Passat, Jetta and Polo classes, a new 3-cylinder TDI has been developed for use in the "Lupo 3L,' a compact car with a fuel consumption of 3 liters per 100 km. A new injection system with unit injectors, together with a fully electronically controlled engine management system featuring drive-by-wire- technology, a turbocharger with variable turbine geometry and a fully automated mechanical gearbox and clutch, for the first time ensures the potential to meet the stringent D4 exhaust emissions level and to achieve excellent fuel economy. The wheel-torque based engine and gearbox management systems optimize engine operation in terms of efficiency and emissions.
Technical Paper

Operating a Gasoline Engine at Constant low Temperature Conditions. The Influence of Different Fuel Droplet Sizes

1996-10-01
961999
This paper describes an investigation of one operating point of the transient warmup curve of a gasoline engine. Coolant liquid and oil of this engine have been cooled down to a constant low level in order to perform detailed measurements and an analysis of this particular warmup point. The influence of low coolant temperature, different pressure drop in an air assisted fuel injection system and a variation of ignition angles on specific fuel consumption, exhaust emissions, energy conversion etc. will be shown. The results show that the suggested test procedure (keeping the coolant temperature at a constant low level) provides the possibility to simulate the behaviour of an engine with air assisted fuel injection during warmup. During this warmup period it is desired to run the engine with retarded ignition timing to realize a fast catalyst warmup.
Technical Paper

Quantitative In-Cylinder NO LIF Measurements with a KrF Excimer Laser Applied to a Mass-Production SI Engine Fueled with Isooctane and Regular Gasoline

1997-02-24
970824
Quantitative 1-D spatially-resolved NO LIF measurements in the combustion chamber of a mass-production SI engine with port-fuel injection using a tunable KrF excimer laser are presented. One of the main advantages of this approach is that KrF laser radiation at 248 nm is only slightly absorbed by the in-cylinder gases during engine combustion and therefore it allows measurements at all crank angles. Multispecies detection turned out to be crucial for this approach since it is possible to calculate the in-cylinder temperature from the detected Rayleigh scattering and the simultaneously acquired pressure traces. Additionally, it allows the monitoring of interfering emissions and spectroscopic effects like fluorescence trapping which turned out to take place. Excitation with 248 nm yields LIF emissions at shorter wavelengths than the laser wavelength (at 237 and 226 nm).
Technical Paper

The New Diesel Engine in the New Beetle

1998-08-11
981950
With the introduction of the New Beetle, Volkswagen is offering the next generation of the 1.9l TDI engine. Several evolutionary changes have been made to the TDI concept to further improve its emissions, efficiency and performance. Emissions performance is improved with increased fuel injection pressure, optimized fuel injectors, calibration modifications, EGR cooling and reduced crevice volume in the combustion chamber. Efficiency is improved with new oil pump, vacuum pump and water pump drive systems and the elimination of an auxiliary driveshaft. Performance and efficiency is improved with the addition of a variable geometry turbocharger, which increases torque at lower engine speeds while preserving performance at higher engine speeds. This paper describes the many enhancements found in this latest generation TDI and gives a brief lookout to the future trends in diesel engine development such as a high pressure injection system with unit injectors.
Technical Paper

In-Cylinder Measurements and Analysis on Fundamental Cold Start and Warm-up Phenomena of SI Engines

1995-10-01
952394
A recently developed Laser Raman Scattering system was applied to measure the in-cylinder air-fuel ratio and the residual gas content (via the water content) of the charge simultaneously in a firing spark-ignition engine during cold start and warm-up. It is the main objective of this work to elucidate the origin of misfires and the necessity to over-fuel at cool ambient temperatures. It turns out that the overall air-fuel ratio and residual gas content (in particular the residual water content) of the charge appear to be the most important parameters for the occurrence of misfires (without appropriate fuel enrichment), i.e., the engine behaviour from cycle to cycle becomes rather predictable on the basis of these data. An alternative explanation for the necessity to over-fuel is given.
Technical Paper

Effect of EGR on Spray Development, Combustion and Emissions in a 1.9L Direct-Injection Diesel Engine

1995-10-01
952356
The spray development, combustion and emissions in a 1.9L optical, four-cylinder, direct-injection diesel engine were investigated by means of pressure analysis, high-speed cinematography, the two-colour method and exhaust gas analysis for various levels of exhaust gas recirculation (EGR), three EGR temperatures (uncontrolled, hot and cold) and three fuels (diesel, n-heptane and a two-component fuel 7D3N). Engine operating conditions included 1000 rpm/idle and 2000 rpm/2bar with EGR-rates ranging from 0 to 70%. Independent of rate, EGR was found to have a very small effect on spray angle and spray tip penetration but the auto-ignition sites seemed to increase in size and number at higher EGR-rates with associated reduction in the flame luminosity and flame temperature, by, say, 100K at 50% EGR.
Technical Paper

Combustion in a Swirl Chamber Diesel Engine Simulation by Computation of Fluid Dynamics

1995-02-01
950280
The combustion and pollutant formation processes in a 1.9 I IDI Diesel engine are simulated with the SPEED computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code. A part and a full load simulation of the production engine and a full load simulation of a modified engine design are analyzed. The mixing and combustion process is visualized for all cases by means of the isosurfaces of stoichiometric mixture. The correlation of this surface with global quantities as heat release, mean pressure and temperature and swirl ratio is emphasized. The global properties are presented resolved for the swirl, main chamber and the swirl chamber throat separately. The formation of thermal NO and soot are simulated and analyzed.
Technical Paper

NOx Formation in Diesel Engines for Various Fuels and Intake Gases

1995-02-01
950213
The NO formation is essentially determined by the flame temperature. In an engine the latter depends on the composition of the fuel and the intake gas. In this study the efficiency of various NO reducing measures is analysed by means of a comparison of measurements and computations for the Most frequent operation point of a 1.9 1 DI Diesel engine. The O2 concentration, which is shown to be the dominant source of influence on the flame temperature and NO formation, is varied using synthetic gas mixtures or by EGR. The molar heat capacity of CO2 and H2O in the recirculated exhaust gas, the intake temperature and the H/C ratio in the fuel are less important for the formation of NO. Measures which reduce the NO formation increase the ignition delay and thereby the fraction of the premixed combustion. The impact of EGR on the combustion process is illustrated by high speed filming.
Technical Paper

Non-intrusive Temperature Measurements during the Compression Phase of a DI Diesel Engine

1995-10-01
952461
Non-intrusive temperature measurements based on single-line laser-induced fluorescence of molecular oxygen in the transparent IDEA Diesel engine were investigated. Oxygen molecules were excited to fluorescence with a narrowband, tunable ArF excimer laser at 193 nm. The resulting fluorescence signals were recorded with an image-intensified CCD camera. The temperature increase during the compression phase of the four-cylinder direct injection Diesel engine could be evaluated from the LIF signals. In the crank angle range of the measurements, good agreement between measured and calculated temperatures (polytropic compression) was observed.
Technical Paper

Time-Resolved Analysis of Soot Formation and Oxidation in a Direct-Injection Diesel Engine for Different EGR-Rates by an Extinction Method

1995-10-01
952517
The formation of soot during the first phase and the oxidation of soot during the later phase of the combustion in a direct-injection diesel engine have been investigated in detail by an extinction method. The experiments were performed in a 1.9 l near-production high-speed four-cylinder in-line direct-injection diesel engine for passenger cars for different rates of exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) and for different fuels. The measurements result in crank angle resolved and cycle-averaged soot mass concentrations in the piston bowl and the combustion chamber. The results show that with increasing EGR-rates the amount of soot formed is increased only slightly but the amount of soot oxidized during combustion decreases significantly. This is assumed to be the main reason for the increase of soot in the exhaust gas with increasing EGR-rates.
Technical Paper

In Cylinder High Speed and Stroboscopic Video Observation of Spray Development in a DI Diesel Engine

1996-05-01
961206
For high-speed imaging a newly developed eight-fold CCD camera, which permits framing rates of up to one million pictures per second, was used to obtain pictures of the injected sprays during the operation of a diesel engine. For the particular case studied here the framing rate was set at 50,000 pictures per second. This rate was sufficient to resolve the temporal development of the sprays in the transparent version of the four-cylinder, in-line, 1.9 litre DI production diesel engine of Volkswagen. The advantage of the camera is that it needs no light pulses for illumination, but can operate with a continuous light source. Each of the CCD chips is arranged around a central eight face reflecting pyramid, which splits the light coming from the camera lens to each CCD chip. The chips can be shuttered freely (asynchronously) at programmable inter-frame spacings thus permitting operation with continuous illumination. In this particular case a 30 Watt halogen lamp was used.
Technical Paper

Vapor/Liquid Visualization with Laser-Induced Exciplex Fluorescence in an SI-Engine for Different Fuel Injection Timings

1996-05-01
961122
Laser-induced exciplex fluorescence has been applied to the mixture formation process in the combustion chamber of an optically-accessible four-cylinder in-line spark-ignition engine in order to distinguish between liquid and vapor fuel distribution during the intake and compression stroke for different injection timings. The naphthalene/N,N,N′N′-tetramethyl p-phenylene diamine (TMPD) exciplex system excited at 308nm with a broadband XeCl excimer laser is used to obtain spectrally-separated, single-shot fluorescence images of the liquid or vapor phase of the fuel. For different timings of the fuel injector this technique is applied to obtain crank-angle-resolved images of the resulting mixture in the combustion chamber. The fluorescence light is detected with an intensified slow-scan CCD-camera equipped with appropriate filters.
Technical Paper

European Diesel Research IDEA-Experimental Results from DI Diesel Engine Investigations

1994-10-01
941954
Within the European research programme IDEA (Integrated Diesel European Action), detailed experimental and theoretical studies of the fundamental phenomena of the Diesel engine like flow, injection, mixture formation, auto-ignition, combustion and pollutant formation were carried out to improve knowledge and to set up models for a simulation code. Because this basic research of the Diesel combustion process is very complex and cost intensive, it was carried out jointly by the JRC (Joint Research Committee), an association of European car manufacturers (Fiat, Peugeot SA, Renault, Volvo and Volkswagen). The activities were also subsidized by the Commission of the European Communities and the Swedish National Board of Technical Development. The results of the research work will support the design of even more efficient engines and the further reduction of soot and NOx emissions and will also enable the companies to reduce time and cost in developing new engines.
Technical Paper

Measurement of Wall Film Thickness in the Intake Manifold of a Standard Production SI Engine by a Spectroscopic Technique

1997-10-01
972832
This paper reports on a non-intrusive method for measuring the liquid fuel film thickness in the intake manifold of a series production SI engine with multi-point fuel injection. The technique is based on laser-induced fluorescence. The optical set-up uses a bifurcated optical fibre bundle for transmission of the laser light for excitation of the fluid and for detecting of the fluorescence light. Due to the special design of the optical probe head it is highly sensitive for thin film measurements and it allows the accurate determination of the fuel film thickness even between a few and 100 μm. Special emphasis is placed on the selection of an adequate tracer added to the iso-octane fuel to achieve the correct film thickness even under vaporizing conditions, and on a detailed study of the parameters influencing the evaluated film thickness.
Technical Paper

Realizing Future Trends in Diesel Engine Development

1997-08-06
972686
Volkswagen is the first automobile manufacturer to supply a passenger car with a direct fuel injection diesel engine to the US market, starting 1996. To meet the stringent US exhaust gas legislation the very successful European 1.9 liter TDI engine has been further developed for the 1996 and 1997 Passat. This TD1 incorporates a number of innovations in advanced diesel technology. Emissions-reducing innovations include: reduced crevice volume higher injection pressures upgraded injection management integrated EGR manifold system EGR cooling diesel catalytic converter This TDI engine configuration is also to be offered in the 1997 Golf and Jetta class and the new Passat in model year 1998. Over the coming years the TDI engine concept will be further optimized by utilizing variations of the above innovations.
Technical Paper

In-Cylinder Mixture Formation Analysis with Spontaneous Raman Scattering Applied to a Mass-Production SI Engine

1997-02-24
970827
Mixture formation analysis in the combustion chamber of a slightly modified mass-production SI engine with port-fuel injection using nonintrusive laser measurement techniques is presented. Laser Raman scattering and planar laser-induced tracer fluorescence are employed to measure air-fuel ratio and residual gas content of the charge with and without spatial resolution. Single-cycle measurements as well as cycle-averaged measurements are performed. Engine operation parameters like load, speed, injection timing, spark timing, coolant temperature, and mean air-fuel ratio are changed to study whether the effects on mixture formation and engine performance can be resolved by the applied laser spectroscopic techniques. Mixture formation is also analyzed by measurement of the charge composition as a function of crank angle. Clear correlations of the charge composition data and engine operating conditions are seen.
Technical Paper

Research Results on Processes and Catalyst Materials for Lean NOx Conversion

1996-10-01
962041
In a joint research project between industrial companies and a number of research institutes, nitrogen oxide conversion in oxygen containing exhaust gas has been investigated according to the following procedure Basic investigations of elementary steps of the chemical reaction Production and prescreening of different catalytic material on laboratory scale Application oriented screening of industrial catalyst material Catalyst testing on a lean bum gasoline engine, passenger car diesel engines (swirl chamber and DI) and on a DI truck engine Although a number of solid body structures show nitrogen oxide reduction by hydrocarbons, only noble metal containing catalysts and transition metal exchanged zeolites gave catalytic efficiencies of industrial relevance. A maximum of 25 % NOx reduction was found in the European driving cycle for passenger cars, about 40 % for truck engines in the respective European test.
Technical Paper

SMART Catalyst Development Approach Applied to Automotive Diesel Application

1996-10-01
962048
Strategic Materials at Reaction Temperatures (SMART) is an approach used to design washcoat systems for passive 4-way emission control catalysts. Light duty diesel vehicles need to meet the European Motor Vehicle Emissions Group (MVEG) cycle or U. S. Federal test procedure (FTP 75). Emissions that are monitored include hydrocarbon (HC), nitrogen oxides (NOx), carbon monoxide (CO) and total particulate matter (TPM). Low engine-exhaust temperatures (< 200°C during city driving) and high temperatures (> 500-800°C under full load and wide-open throttle) make emission control a formidable task for the catalyst designer Gas phase HC, CO and NOx reactions must be balanced with the removal of the soluble organic fraction for the vehicle to be in compliance with regulations. The SMART approach uses model gases under typical operating conditions in the laboratory to better understand the function of individual washcoat components.
Technical Paper

Catalytic NOx Reduction in Net Oxidizing Exhaust Gas

1990-02-01
900496
Several different possibilities will be described and discussed on the processes of reducing NOx in lean-burn gasoline and diesel engines. In-company studies were conducted on zeolitic catalysts. With lean-burn spark-ignition engines, hydrocarbons in the exhaust gas act as a reducing agent. In stationary conditions at λ = 1.2, NOx conversion rates of approx. 45 % were achieved. With diesel engines, the only promising variant is SCR technology using urea as a reducing agent. The remaining problems are still the low space velocity and the narrow temperature window of the catalyst. The production of reaction products and secondary reactions of urea with other components in the diesel exhaust gas are still unclarified.
Technical Paper

A New Generation of Diesel Oxidation Catalysts

1992-10-01
922330
An overview is given on the state of the art of a new catalytic exhaust gas aftertreatment device for diesel engines. The function of a precious metal based, flow-through type diesel oxidation catalyst is explained. Much attention is paid to the durability of the diesel oxidation catalyst and especially to the influence of poisoning elements on the catalytic activity. Detailed data on the interaction of poisoning elements such as sulfur, zinc and phosphorus with the catalytic active sites are given. Finally it is demonstrated that it is possible to meet the stringent emission standards for diesel passenger cars in Europe with a new catalyst generation over 80.000 km AMA aging.
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