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Technical Paper

LEV II Applications Based on a Lean Start Calibration

This paper compares and discusses the impact of conventional and improved start strategies on the design of the exhaust aftertreatment system. It is recognised that hardware measures on the exhaust side will not be sufficient if Volvo's 5 and 6 cylinder engines are to fulfil SULEV emission levels, assuming passive three way systems only. A new start strategy, providing an excessive heat profile combined with low engine out hydrocarbon emissions, was therefore developed. Temperature profiles, raw emissions and mass flow obtained with the Lean Start Calibration will be shown for the 5 and 6 cylinder engines, both naturally aspirated as turbo. The remaining part of the paper presents a brief history of the exhaust aftertreatment design modifications for Volvo's 5 cylinder N/A engine fulfilling LEV, ULEV I, ULEV II and PZEV emission levels respectively. The impact of the new start strategy on the cold start performance will be shown.
Technical Paper

PremAir® Catalyst System

Traditional approaches to pollution control have been to develop benign non-polluting processes or to abate emissions at the tailpipe or stack before emitting to the atmosphere. A new technology called PremAir®* Catalyst Systems takes a different approach and directly reduces ambient ground level ozone. This technology can be applied to both mobile and stationary applications. For automotive applications, the new system involves placing a catalytic coating on the car's radiator or air conditioner condenser. As air passes over the radiator or condenser, the catalyst converts the ozone into oxygen. Three Volvo vehicles with a catalyst coating on the radiator were tested on the road during the 1997 summer ozone season in southern California to assess performance. Studies were also conducted in Volvo's laboratory to determine the effect of the catalyst coating on the radiator's performance with regard to corrosion, heat transfer and pressure drop.
Technical Paper

Thermal and Chemical Deactivation of Three-Way Catalysts: Comparison of Road-, Fuel-Cut and SAI- Aged Catalysts

The objective of this study was to investigate which of the artificial aging cycles available in the automotive industry that causes major deactivation of three-way catalysts (TWCs) and can be used to obtain an aged catalyst similar to the road aged converter (160 000km). Standard bench cycle (SBC) aging with secondary air injection (SAI) covered aging with various mass flows - a flow from three cylinders into one catalyst system and a flow from three cylinders into two parallel connected catalysts. For rapid catalyst bench aging, secondary air injection is a very efficient tool to create exotherms. Furthermore, the effect on catalytic activity of SAI aging with poisons from oil and fuel dopants (P, Ca, Zn) was investigated. The catalysts were thoroughly characterized in light-off and oxygen storage capacity measurements, emission conversion as a function of lambda and load variation was determined.
Technical Paper

Reducing Pressure Fluctuations at High Loads by Means of Charge Stratification in HCCI Combustion with Negative Valve Overlap

Future demands for improvements in the fuel economy of gasoline passenger car engines will require the development and implementation of advanced combustion strategies, to replace, or combine with the conventional spark ignition strategy. One possible strategy is homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) achieved using negative valve overlap (NVO). However, several issues need to be addressed before this combustion strategy can be fully implemented in a production vehicle, one being to increase the upper load limit. One constraint at high loads is the combustion becoming too rapid, leading to excessive pressure-rise rates and large pressure fluctuations (ringing), causing noise. In this work, efforts were made to reduce these pressure fluctuations by using a late injection during the later part of the compression. A more appropriate acronym than HCCI for such combustion is SCCI (Stratified Charge Compression Ignition).
Technical Paper

Development of the Euro 5 Combustion System for Volvo Cars' 2.4.I Diesel Engine

The development of a new combustion system for a light-duty diesel engine is presented. The soot-NOx trade-off is significantly improved with maintained or improved efficiency. This is accomplished only by altering the combustion chamber geometry, and thereby the in-cylinder flow. The bowl geometry is developed in CFD and validated in single cylinder tests. Tests and simulations align remarkably well. Under identical conditions in the engine the new combustion chamber decreases smoke by 11-27%, NOx by 2-11%, and maintains efficiency as compared to the baseline geometry. The injector nozzle is matched to the new bowl using design of experiments (DoE). By this method transfer functions are obtained that can be used to optimize the system using analytical tools. The emissions show a complex dependence on the nozzle geometry. The emission dependence on nozzle geometry varies greatly over the engine operating range.
Technical Paper

A Structure and Calibration Method for Data-Driven Modeling of NOX and Soot Emissions from a Diesel Engine

The development and implementation of a new structure for data-driven models for NOX and soot emissions is described. The model structure is a linear regression model, where physically relevant input signals are used as regressors, and all the regression parameters are defined as grid-maps in the engine speed/injected fuel domain. The method of using grid-maps in the engine speed/injected fuel domain for all the regression parameters enables the models to be valid for changes in physical parameters that affect the emissions, without having to include these parameters as input signals to the models. This is possible for parameters that are dependent only on the engine speed and the amount of injected fuel. This means that models can handle changes for different parameters in the complete working range of the engine, without having to include all signals that actually effect the emissions into the models.
Technical Paper

Acoustic One-Dimensional Compressor Model for Integration in a Gas-Dynamic Code

An acoustic one-dimensional compressor model has been developed. This model is based on compressor map information and it is able to predict how the pressure waves are transmitted and reflected by the compressor. This is later on necessary to predict radiated noise at the intake orifice. The fluid-dynamic behavior of the compressor has been reproduced by simplifying the real geometry in zero-dimensional and one-dimensional elements with acoustic purposes. These elements are responsible for attenuating or reflecting the pressure pulses generated by the engine. In order to compensate the effect of these elements in the mean flow variables, the model uses a corrected compressor map. Despite of the fact that the compressor model was developed originally as a part of the OpenWAM™ software, it can be exported to other commercial wave action models. An example is provided of exporting the described model to GT-Power™.
Technical Paper

Multidisciplinary Simulation Model for the Balancing of Powertrain Combustion, Control and Components for Optimal Fuel Consumption, Emissions, Cost and Performance for a Diesel Engine Powered Passenger Car

Passenger cars equipped with diesel engines will meet challenging emission legislation for the coming decade, with introduction of Euro6 and Euro7, which comprises reduced NOX emissions and possibly new driving cycles including off-cycle limits. The technology measures to meet these legislative limits comprise a broad spectrum of engine and aftertreatment, i.e., engine measures such as improved fuel injection with respect to mass and timing, improved exhaust gas recirculation, improved warm-up and reduced friction, as well as aftertreatment measures such as selective catalytic reduction and lean NOX trap in combination with diesel particulate filter, and the thereby associated engine control. The resulting technology matrix is therefore large, and calls for a multidisciplinary simulation approach for appropriate selection and optimization of technology and control with the objectives and constraints of emissions, fuel consumption, performance and cost.
Technical Paper

Interior Sound of Today's Electric Cars: Tonal Content, Levels and Frequency Distribution

When it comes to the acoustic properties of electric cars, the powertrain noise differs dramatically compared to traditional vehicles with internal combustion engines. The low frequency firing orders, mechanical and combustion noise are exchanged with a more high frequency whining signature due to electromagnetic forces and gear meshing, lower in level but subject to annoyance. Previous studies have highlighted these differences and also investigated relevant perception criteria in terms of psycho-acoustic metrics. However, investigations of differences between different kinds of electric and hybrid electric cars are still rare. The purpose of this paper was to present the distribution of tonal components in today's hybrid/electric vehicles. More specifically, the number of prominent orders, their maximum levels and frequency separation were analyzed for the most critical driving conditions. The study is based upon measurements made on 13 electrified cars on the market.
Technical Paper

Study of EGR and Turbocharger Combinations and Their Influence on Diesel Engine’s Efficiency and Emissions

An experimental study of EGR and turbocharging concepts has been performed on an experimental 2.0-litre 4-cylinder turbocharged Euro6 light-duty diesel engine. The purpose of the study was to investigate the emissions and fuel consumption trade-off for different concept combinations. The impact of low-pressure and high-pressure EGR was studied in terms of engine-out emissions and fuel consumption. Moreover, the influence of single-stage and two-stage turbocharging was investigated in combination with the EGR systems, and how the engine efficiency could be further improved after engine calibration optimization. During low load engine operation where throttling may be required to achieve the desired low-pressure EGR rate, the difference in fuel consumption impact was studied for exhaust throttling and intake throttling, respectively. The cooling impact on high-pressure EGR was compared in terms of emissions and fuel consumption.
Technical Paper

Experimental Comparison of Heat Losses in Stepped-Bowl and Re-Entrant Combustion Chambers in a Light Duty Diesel Engine

Heat loss is one of the greatest energy losses in engines. More than half of the heat is lost to cooling media and exhaust losses, and they thus dominate the internal combustion engine energy balance. Complex processes affect heat loss to the cylinder walls, including gas motion, spray-wall interaction and turbulence levels. The aim of this work was to experimentally compare the heat transfer characteristics of a stepped-bowl piston geometry to a conventional re-entrant diesel bowl studied previously and here used as the baseline geometry. The stepped-bowl geometry features a low surface-to-volume ratio compared to the baseline bowl, which is considered beneficial for low heat losses. Speed, load, injection pressure, swirl level, EGR rate and air/fuel ratio (λ) were varied in a multi-cylinder light duty engine operated in conventional diesel combustion (CDC) mode.
Technical Paper

Optimizing the Natural Gas Engine for CO2 reduction

With alternative fuels having moved more into market in light of their reduction of emissions of CO2 and other air pollutants, the spark ignited internal combustion engine design has only been affected to small extent. The development of combustion engines running on natural gas or Biogas have been focused to maintain driveability on gasoline, creating a multi fuel platform which does not fully utilise the alternative fuels’ potential. However, optimising these concepts on a fundamental level for gas operation shows a great potential to increase the level of utilisation and effectiveness of the engine and thereby meeting the emissions legislation. The project described in this paper has focused on optimising a combustion concept for CNG combustion on a single cylinder research engine. The ICE’s efficiency at full load and the fuels characteristics, including its knock resistance, is of primary interest - together with part load performance and overall fuel consumption.
Technical Paper

A High Resolution 3D Complete Engine Heat Balance Model

The focus on engine thermal management is rapidly increasing due to the significant effect of heat losses on fuel consumption, engine performance and emissions. This work presents a time resolved, high resolution 3D engine heat balance model, including all relevant components. Notably, the model calculates the conjugated heat transfer between the solid engine components, the coolant and the oil. Both coolant and oil circuits are simultaneously resolved with a CFD solver in the same finite volume model as the entire engine solid parts. The model includes external convection and radiation. The necessary boundary conditions of the thermodynamic cycle (gas side) are mapped from a calibrated 1D gas exchange model of the same engine. The boundary conditions for the coolant and at the oil circuits are estimated with 1D models of the systems. The model is calibrated and verified with measurement data from the same engine as modeled.
Technical Paper

Engine Presence in Diesel Engine Passenger Cars

Highly refined NVH (Noise, Vibration and Harshness) is a key attribute for premium segment passenger cars. All noise sources such as powertrain, tires, wind, climate unit and etc. must be well balanced and at such a low level that the customer expectations are met or exceeded. However, not only are the NVH levels of importance but the character of the noise must also meet the high demands from premium car customers. This is especially true for diesel engines which historically have been more prone to have a less refined engine noise character than petrol engines. This paper will describe an investigation of what is defined as “engine presence” in four-cylinder diesel engine cars. The scope is to define a method for consistent subjective assessment of engine presence and to find the relationship and investigate the correlation between the “perceived loudness”, “perceived harshness” and the overall engine presence interior of the car.
Technical Paper

Transient Responses of Various Ammonia Formation Catalyst Configurations for Passive SCR in Lean-Burning Gasoline Engines under Various Real Engine Conditions.

Passive selective catalyst reduction (SCR) systems can be used as aftertreatment systems for lean burn spark ignition (SI)-engines. Their operation is based on the interaction between the engine, an ammonia formation catalyst (AFC), and an SCR catalyst. Under rich conditions the AFC forms ammonia, which is stored in the SCR catalyst. Under lean conditions, the SCR catalyst reduces the engine out NOx using the stored NH3. This study compared the ammonia production and response times of a standard three way catalyst (TWC) and a Pd/Al2O3 catalyst under realistic engine operating conditions. In addition, the relationships between selected engine operating parameters and ammonia formation over a TWC were investigated, considering the influence of both the chosen load point and the engine settings.
Technical Paper

Investigation of Performance Differences and Control Synthesis for Servo-Controlled and Vacuum-Actuated Wastegates

1 Turbocharging plays an important role in the downsizing of engines. Model-based approaches for boost control are going to increasing the necessity for controlling the wastegate flow more accurately. In today’s cars, the wastegate is usually only controlled with a duty cycle and without position feedback. Due to nonlinearities and varying disturbances a duty cycle does not correspond to a certain position. Currently the most frequently used feedback controller strategy is to use the boost pressure as the controller reference. This means that there is a large time constant from actuation command to effect in boost pressure, which can impair dynamic performance. In this paper, the performance of an electrically controlled vacuum-actuated waste-gate, subsequently referred to as vacuum wastegate, is compared to an electrical servo-controlled wastegate, also referred to as electric wastegate.
Technical Paper

Development of the Combustion System for Volvo Cars Euro6d VEA Diesel Engine

The demands for a future diesel engine in terms of emission compliance, CO2 emissions, performance and cost effectiveness set new requirements for the development process of the combustion system. This paper focuses on the development of the next generation Volvo Cars diesel combustion system, which should comply with Euro 6d including Real Driving Emissions (RDE), with emphasis on the novel methods applied throughout the process. The foundation of a high performing combustion system is formed by first determining the requirements for the system, after which the key factors that affect system performance are selected, such as the charge motion, combustion chamber geometry and injector nozzle geometry. Based on the requirements, a robust charge motion with desired flow characteristics is defined. A new automated CFD optimization process for combustion chamber geometry and spray target is developed.
Technical Paper

Ion Current Sensing in an Optical HCCI Engine with Negative Valve Overlap

Ion current sensors have high potential utility for obtaining feedback signals directly from the combustion chamber in internal combustion engines. This paper describes experiments performed in a single-cylinder optical engine operated in HCCI mode with negative valve overlap to explore this potential. A high-speed CCD camera was used to visualize the combustion progress in the cylinder, and the photographs obtained were compared with the ion current signals. The optical data indicate that the ions responsible for the chemiluminescence from the HCCI combustion have to be in contact with the sensing electrode for an ion current to start flowing through the measurement circuit. This also means that there will be an offset between the time at which 50% of the fuel mass has burned and 50% of the ion current peak value is reached, which is readily explained by the results presented in the paper.
Technical Paper

Injection Orifice Shape: Effects on Spray Characteristics and Heat-Release Rate in a Large-Size Single-Cylinder Diesel Engine

A series of experimental studies of diesel spray and combustion characteristics was carried out using circular, elliptic and step orifices. The experiment was performed on a 3-litre single-cylinder engine with optical access. In the engine tests, an elliptic-orifice nozzle with an aspect ratio of approximately 2:1, and a step-orifice nozzle were compared with circular-orifice nozzles. All orifices had sharp-edged inlets. The nozzles were tested at injection pressures extending from 300 to 1300 bar. The nozzles were evaluated in respect of initial spray tip velocity, penetration, spray cone angle, spray width, intermittency and heat-release. Substantial differences were observed in the spray characteristics: At an injection pressure of 300 bar, the spray width increased twice as fast in the minor axis plane of the elliptic orifice and step orifice than the circular orifices.
Technical Paper

Mid-Ranging Scheme for Idle Speed Control of SI Engines

The article describes a model-based control method for idle speed of spark-ignition (SI) engines. It is based on mid-ranging, a multivariable control strategy that is more commonly used in process control. The basic building blocks of the control structure are two PI controllers.