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Technical Paper

Development of a Model Scale Heat Exchanger for Wind Tunnel Models of Road Vehicles

2008-04-14
2008-01-0097
During the development of the aerodynamic properties of fore coming road vehicles down scaled models are often used in the initial phase. However, if scale models are to be utilised even further in the aerodynamic development they have to include geometrical representatives of most of the components found in the real vehicle. As the cooling package is one of the biggest single generators of aerodynamic drag the heat exchangers are essential to include in a wind tunnel model. However, due mainly to limitations in manufacturing techniques it is complicated to make a down scaled heat exchanger and instead functional dummy heat exchangers have to be developed for scaled wind tunnel models. In this work a Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) code has been used to show that it is important that the simplified heat exchanger model has to be of comparable size to that of the full scale unit.
Technical Paper

PremAir® Catalyst System

1998-10-19
982728
Traditional approaches to pollution control have been to develop benign non-polluting processes or to abate emissions at the tailpipe or stack before emitting to the atmosphere. A new technology called PremAir®* Catalyst Systems takes a different approach and directly reduces ambient ground level ozone. This technology can be applied to both mobile and stationary applications. For automotive applications, the new system involves placing a catalytic coating on the car's radiator or air conditioner condenser. As air passes over the radiator or condenser, the catalyst converts the ozone into oxygen. Three Volvo vehicles with a catalyst coating on the radiator were tested on the road during the 1997 summer ozone season in southern California to assess performance. Studies were also conducted in Volvo's laboratory to determine the effect of the catalyst coating on the radiator's performance with regard to corrosion, heat transfer and pressure drop.
Technical Paper

CFD-Analysis of Cycle Averaged Heat Flux and Engine Cooling in an IC-Engine

2005-04-11
2005-01-0200
It is demonstrated that the cycle averaged heat flux on the hot gas side of the cylinders can be obtained using in-cylinder CFD-analysis. Together with the heat transfer coefficient obtained from the coolant jacket CFD-analysis, a complete set of boundary conditions are made available exclusively based on simulations. The engine metal temperatures could then be predicted using FEA and the results are compared to an extensive set of measured data. Also 1-D codes are used to provide cooling circuit boundary conditions and gas exchange boundary condition for the CFD-models. The predicted temperature distribution in the engine is desirable for accurate and reliable prediction of knock, durability problems, bore distortion and valve seat distortion.
Technical Paper

Balancing Thermodynamic and Aerodynamic Attributes Through the Use of a Common CFD Model

2005-05-10
2005-01-2052
This paper describes how simultaneous numerical simulation of cooling performance and aerodynamic drag can be used to achieve attribute-balanced solutions. Traditionally at Volvo, evaluation of cooling performance and aerodynamics are done by separate teams using separate models and software. However, using this approach, any project changes can be evaluated in terms of their effect on cooling performance and drag from one single model. This enables the project to make decisions that are optimal in a more global perspective. If several proposals have similar levels of cooling performance, the proposal that yields the lowest overall drag can be chosen, thus reducing the fuel consumption of the vehicle. The first part of the paper discusses the prerequisites for the method in terms of boundary conditions, mesh and solution strategy. For the cooling performance part, the importance of high quality boundary conditions is reviewed.
Technical Paper

Development and Validation of Coolant Temperature and Cooling Air Flow CFD Simulations at Volvo Cars

2004-03-08
2004-01-0051
This paper describes the development of a robust and accurate method to model one-phase heat exchangers in complete vehicle air flow simulations along with a comprehensive comparison of EFD and CFD results. The comparison shows that the inlet radiator coolant temperatures obtained with CFD were within ±4°C of the experimental data with a trend in the differences being dependent on the car speed. The relative differences in cooling air mass flow rates increase with increasing car speed, with CFD values generally higher than EFD. From the investigation, the conclusion is that the methodology and modeling technique presented offer an accurate tool for concept and system solutions on the front end design, cooling package and fan. Care must be taken in order to provide the best possible boundary conditions paying particular attention to the heat losses in the engine, performance data for the radiator and fan characteristics.
Technical Paper

Experimental Comparison of Heat Losses in Stepped-Bowl and Re-Entrant Combustion Chambers in a Light Duty Diesel Engine

2016-04-05
2016-01-0732
Heat loss is one of the greatest energy losses in engines. More than half of the heat is lost to cooling media and exhaust losses, and they thus dominate the internal combustion engine energy balance. Complex processes affect heat loss to the cylinder walls, including gas motion, spray-wall interaction and turbulence levels. The aim of this work was to experimentally compare the heat transfer characteristics of a stepped-bowl piston geometry to a conventional re-entrant diesel bowl studied previously and here used as the baseline geometry. The stepped-bowl geometry features a low surface-to-volume ratio compared to the baseline bowl, which is considered beneficial for low heat losses. Speed, load, injection pressure, swirl level, EGR rate and air/fuel ratio (λ) were varied in a multi-cylinder light duty engine operated in conventional diesel combustion (CDC) mode.
Technical Paper

A High Resolution 3D Complete Engine Heat Balance Model

2015-09-06
2015-24-2533
The focus on engine thermal management is rapidly increasing due to the significant effect of heat losses on fuel consumption, engine performance and emissions. This work presents a time resolved, high resolution 3D engine heat balance model, including all relevant components. Notably, the model calculates the conjugated heat transfer between the solid engine components, the coolant and the oil. Both coolant and oil circuits are simultaneously resolved with a CFD solver in the same finite volume model as the entire engine solid parts. The model includes external convection and radiation. The necessary boundary conditions of the thermodynamic cycle (gas side) are mapped from a calibrated 1D gas exchange model of the same engine. The boundary conditions for the coolant and at the oil circuits are estimated with 1D models of the systems. The model is calibrated and verified with measurement data from the same engine as modeled.
Technical Paper

Accuracy in Flow Simulations of Climate Control-Part 1: The Air Distribution System

1999-03-01
1999-01-1200
Flow simulations of an air distribution system have been carried out using the CFD code FLUENT/UNS [1]. The purpose of this study is to validate this complex flow problem versus experimental data. Two modes of the climate system are investigated; the Ventilation mode and the Floor/Defroster mode. The complete geometrical model contains all ducts, central unit, heat exchangers, defroster and nozzles of the air distribution system. A high level of geometrical detailing in the mesh, consisting of 2.1 - 3.3 million cells, is used. The study shows that CFD has a potential to give reliable results, even for complex systems, like air distribution systems, if used in a controlled manner.
Technical Paper

Strive for Zero Emissions Impact from Hybrids

2019-09-09
2019-24-0146
Since several decades, passenger cars and light duty vehicles (LDV) with spark-ignited engines reach full pollutant conversion during warm up conditions; the major challenge has been represented by the cold start and warming up strategies. The focus on technology developments of exhaust after treatment systems have been done in the thermal management in order to reach the warm up conditions as soon as possible. A new challenge is now represented by the Real Driving Emission (RDE) Regulation as this bring more various, and not any longer cycle defined, cold start conditions. On the other hand, once the full conversion has been reached, it would be beneficial for many Exhaust After Treatment System (EATS) components, e.g. for overall durability if the exhaust gas temperature could be lowered. To take significant further emission steps, approaching e.g. zero emission concepts, we investigate the use of Electrical Heating Catalyst (EHC) also including pre-heating.
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