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Technical Paper

Body and Component Accuracy in Assembly Systems

1998-09-29
982269
To give the customer an immediate impression of quality several of criteria must be fulfilled such as styling, paint finish and fitting of outer panels/closures. Therefore, higher demands on geometrical quality e.g. stability for both exterior and interior are needed. The structural part of the car body is the key element for success. Beside the visual impression, lack of noise and vibrations during driving can convince a potential buyer to become an actual customer. To achieve this, car manufacturers have to draw up an overall strategy in combination with proper working methods to be able to guarantee a stable geometrical output throughout the entire development process and during series production over the lifetime of the vehicle. On a simultaneous engineering basis, the OEM, the system/component- and the process suppliers (for the industrial system from press shop to final assembly) have to adopt a common measurement strategy.
Technical Paper

Multi-material Approach with Integrated Joining Technologies in the New Volvo S80

1999-09-28
1999-01-3147
In May 1998 Volvo launched its most exclusive car model so far, the Volvo S80, which is aimed to compete with upper luxury segment products. The car is produced in the new production facility in the Torslanda plant in Sweden. Among the more highlighted features were a transversely mounted in-line six cylinder engine with a specially designed gearbox, electronic multiplex technology with 18 computers in the network, and safety features like stability and traction control (STC), front seats with integrated antiwhiplash system (WHIPS) and inflatable curtain (IC) for improved side impact protection. To fulfill the product's high demands on safety, quality and environmental care, the design, materials selection and assembly of the car body with high precision had to be very carefully engineered. As in previous product-/process development a holistic and concurrent engineering approach was necessary.
Technical Paper

Fast and economic stiffness evaluation of mechanical joints

2003-10-27
2003-01-2751
Car body structures and the joints between beam members have a great impact on global vehicle stiffness. With the method presented in this paper it is possible to experimentally assess the stiffness of joints by a robust and economic means. The stiffness of a beam can easily be found experimentally just by cutting it in two and using the cross-sections to calculate the polar moment of inertia. When it comes to a joint, there are no formulae or explicit expressions describing its behavior. Therefore, measurement of its mechanical behavior has to be made. The dynamic joint method presented here does not need levers or a costly, rigid set-up, but an economical free-free set-up and cast-on weights. Furthermore, the same method can be emulated by FEM when a digital model exists.
Technical Paper

Supporting Welding Methods for Future Light Weight Steel Car Body Structures

2002-07-09
2002-01-2091
In the continuous struggle to improve car body properties, and at the same time reduce the weight of the structure, new materials and body concepts are being evaluated. In competition with more self-evident lightweight materials such as aluminium and plastic composites, new and different grades of high-strength steels with various surface coatings are being introduced. From experience it is known that to be able to weld and join these steel grades under high-volume conditions, it is necessary to perform comprehensive testing to establish those assembly parameters which give a superior and reliable weld quality. To meet the demands of cost-effective low volume production, we can notice a tendency to move away from traditional uni-body concepts and into the direction of space-frame structures. These can preferably be manufactured out of high-strength steels by using production methods like roll-forming, hydro-forming and hot-forming.
Technical Paper

Analytical Methods for Durability in the Automotive Industry - The Engineering Process, Past, Present and Future

2001-03-05
2001-01-4075
In the early days of the automotive industry, durability and reliability were hit or miss affairs, with end-users often being the first to know about any durability problems - and in many cases forming an essential part of the development process. More recently, automotive companies have developed proving ground and laboratory test procedures that aim to simulate typical or severe customer usage. These test procedures have been used to develop the products through a series of prototypes and to prove the durability of the product prior to release in the marketplace. Now, commercial pressures and legal requirements have led to increasing reliance on CAE methods, with fatigue life prediction having a central role in the durability engineering process.
Technical Paper

Digital Human Models' Appearance Impact on Observers' Ergonomic Assessment

2005-06-14
2005-01-2722
The objective of this paper is to investigate whether different appearance modes of the digital human models (DHM or manikins) affect the observers when judging a working posture. A case where the manikin is manually assembling a battery in the boot with help of a lifting device is used in the experiment. 16 different pictures were created and presented for the subjects. All pictures have the same background, but include a unique posture and manikin appearance combination. Four postures and four manikin appearances were used. The subjects were asked to rank the pictures after ergonomic assessment based on posture of the manikin. Subjects taking part in the study were either manufacturing engineering managers, simulation engineers or ergonomists. Results show that the different appearance modes affect the ergonomic judgment. A more realistic looking manikin is rated higher than the very same posture visualized with a less natural appearance.
Technical Paper

The Volvo 5-Cylinder Engine with 4-Valve Technology - A New Member of Volvos Modular Engine Family

1991-09-01
911906
During 1991 Volvo Car Corporation has introduced the new Volvo 850 GLT model featuring front wheel drive with transverse installation of the engine and gearbox. The powertrain; consists of a new in-line five-cylinder engine in combination with a four speed electronically controlled automatic gearbox or a five speed manual gearbox. The engine features DOHC 20 valves, V-VIS (Volvo Variable Induction System), well tuned exhaust system and microprocessor controlled engine management systems. The engine was designed and developed as a new member of Volvo's modular engine family. The first member was the in-line six-cylinder engine B6304F [1] introduced in 1990. The modular engines have a large number of identical components and the major components are machined in common transfer lines which makes the manufacturing process highly rational and cost-effective.
Journal Article

Measurements of Energy Used for Vehicle Interior Climate

2014-11-01
2014-01-9129
Fuel consumption of vehicles has received increased attention in recent years; however one neglected area that can have a large effect on this is the energy usage for the interior climate. This study aims to investigate the energy usage for the interior climate for different conditions by measurements on a complete vehicle. Twelve different NEDC tests in different temperatures and thermal states of the vehicle were completed in a climatic wind tunnel. Furthermore one temperature sweep from 43° to −18°C was also performed. The measurements focused on the heat flow of the air, from its sources, to its sink, i.e. compartment. In addition the electrical and mechanical loads of the climate system were included. The different sources of heating and cooling were, for the tested powertrain, waste heat from the engine, a fuel operated heater, heat pickup of the air, evaporator cooling and cooling from recirculation.
Technical Paper

Fatigue Life Prediction of MAG-Welded Thin-Sheet Structures

1998-09-29
982311
A finite-element (FE) based method for numerically predicting fatigue life of MAG-welded thin-sheet structures has been established and tested. The method uses nodal forces and moments calculated along the weld line, together with an analytical expression for the structural stress at the weld toe. The calculated stress is used together with an experimentally determined Wöhler, or S-N, curve. A “stiff” welded joint with structural stress dominated by membrane forces is found to have a steeper S-N curve than a “flexible” joint with structural stress dominated by bending moment. All test results were seen to lie close to one of two different S-N curves. The proportion of bending stress over total structural stress could be used for choosing the appropriate S-N curve.
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