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Technical Paper

Challenges and Opportunities for the Transition to Highly Energy-Efficient Passenger Cars

2011-06-09
2011-37-0013
Maintaining the current ratio between certified and the customer-observed fuel consumption even with future required levels poses a considerable challenge. Increasing the efficiency of the driveline enables certified fuel consumption down to a feasible level in the order of 80 g CO₂/km using fossil fuels. Mainly affecting off-cycle fuel consumption, energy amounts used to create good interior climate as well as energy-consuming options and features threaten to further increase. Progressing urbanization will lead to decreasing average vehicle speeds and driving distances. Highly efficient powertrains come with decreased amounts of waste energy traditionally used for interior climate conditioning, thus making necessary a change of auxiliary systems.
Technical Paper

Multidisciplinary Simulation Model for the Balancing of Powertrain Combustion, Control and Components for Optimal Fuel Consumption, Emissions, Cost and Performance for a Diesel Engine Powered Passenger Car

2012-09-10
2012-01-1572
Passenger cars equipped with diesel engines will meet challenging emission legislation for the coming decade, with introduction of Euro6 and Euro7, which comprises reduced NOX emissions and possibly new driving cycles including off-cycle limits. The technology measures to meet these legislative limits comprise a broad spectrum of engine and aftertreatment, i.e., engine measures such as improved fuel injection with respect to mass and timing, improved exhaust gas recirculation, improved warm-up and reduced friction, as well as aftertreatment measures such as selective catalytic reduction and lean NOX trap in combination with diesel particulate filter, and the thereby associated engine control. The resulting technology matrix is therefore large, and calls for a multidisciplinary simulation approach for appropriate selection and optimization of technology and control with the objectives and constraints of emissions, fuel consumption, performance and cost.
Technical Paper

Study of EGR and Turbocharger Combinations and Their Influence on Diesel Engine’s Efficiency and Emissions

2016-04-05
2016-01-0676
An experimental study of EGR and turbocharging concepts has been performed on an experimental 2.0-litre 4-cylinder turbocharged Euro6 light-duty diesel engine. The purpose of the study was to investigate the emissions and fuel consumption trade-off for different concept combinations. The impact of low-pressure and high-pressure EGR was studied in terms of engine-out emissions and fuel consumption. Moreover, the influence of single-stage and two-stage turbocharging was investigated in combination with the EGR systems, and how the engine efficiency could be further improved after engine calibration optimization. During low load engine operation where throttling may be required to achieve the desired low-pressure EGR rate, the difference in fuel consumption impact was studied for exhaust throttling and intake throttling, respectively. The cooling impact on high-pressure EGR was compared in terms of emissions and fuel consumption.
Technical Paper

Investigations of the Rear-End Flow Structures on a Sedan Car

2016-04-05
2016-01-1606
The aerodynamic drag, fuel consumption and hence CO2 emissions, of a road vehicle depend strongly on its flow structures and the pressure drag generated. The rear end flow which is an area of complex three-dimensional flow structures, contributes to the wake development and the overall aerodynamic performance of the vehicle. This paper seeks to provide improved insight into this flow region to better inform future drag reduction strategies. Using experimental and numerical techniques, two vehicle shapes have been studied; a 30% scale model of a Volvo S60 representing a 2003MY vehicle and a full scale 2010MY S60. First the surface topology of the rear end (rear window and trunk deck) of both configurations is analysed, using paint to visualise the skin friction pattern. By means of critical points, the pattern is characterized and changes are identified studying the location and type of the occurring singularities.
Technical Paper

Optimizing the Natural Gas Engine for CO2 reduction

2016-04-05
2016-01-0875
With alternative fuels having moved more into market in light of their reduction of emissions of CO2 and other air pollutants, the spark ignited internal combustion engine design has only been affected to small extent. The development of combustion engines running on natural gas or Biogas have been focused to maintain driveability on gasoline, creating a multi fuel platform which does not fully utilise the alternative fuels’ potential. However, optimising these concepts on a fundamental level for gas operation shows a great potential to increase the level of utilisation and effectiveness of the engine and thereby meeting the emissions legislation. The project described in this paper has focused on optimising a combustion concept for CNG combustion on a single cylinder research engine. The ICE’s efficiency at full load and the fuels characteristics, including its knock resistance, is of primary interest - together with part load performance and overall fuel consumption.
Technical Paper

Reduction of Energy Used for Vehicle Interior Climate

2016-04-05
2016-01-0250
In recent years fuel consumption of passenger vehicles has received increasing attention by customers, the automotive industry, regulatory agencies and academia. However, some areas which affect the fuel consumption have received relatively small interest. One of these areas is the total energy used for vehicle interior climate which can have a large effect on real-world fuel consumption. Realistic combinations of energy saving measures were evaluated regarding the total energy use for vehicle interior climate using a one dimensional (1D) simulation model. The 1D simulation model included sub models of the passenger compartment, the air-handling unit, the Air Conditioning (AC) system, engine and engine cooling system. A test cycle representative for real-world conditions was developed. The test cycle included tests in cold, intermediate and warm conditions and the results were weighted with the estimated use in each condition.
Technical Paper

A High Resolution 3D Complete Engine Heat Balance Model

2015-09-06
2015-24-2533
The focus on engine thermal management is rapidly increasing due to the significant effect of heat losses on fuel consumption, engine performance and emissions. This work presents a time resolved, high resolution 3D engine heat balance model, including all relevant components. Notably, the model calculates the conjugated heat transfer between the solid engine components, the coolant and the oil. Both coolant and oil circuits are simultaneously resolved with a CFD solver in the same finite volume model as the entire engine solid parts. The model includes external convection and radiation. The necessary boundary conditions of the thermodynamic cycle (gas side) are mapped from a calibrated 1D gas exchange model of the same engine. The boundary conditions for the coolant and at the oil circuits are estimated with 1D models of the systems. The model is calibrated and verified with measurement data from the same engine as modeled.
Technical Paper

Comparing Dynamic Programming Optimal Control Strategies for a Series Hybrid Drivetrain

2017-10-08
2017-01-2457
A two-state forward dynamic programming algorithm is evaluated in a series hybrid drive-train application with the objective to minimize fuel consumption when look-ahead information is available. The states in the new method are battery state-of-charge and engine speed. The new method is compared to one-state dynamic programming optimization methods where the requested generator power is found such that the fuel consumption is minimized and engine speed is given by the optimum power-speed efficiency line. The other method compared is to run the engine at a given operating point where the system efficiency is highest, finding the combination of engine run requests over the drive-cycle that minimizes the fuel consumption. The work has included the engine torque and generator power as control signals and is evaluated in a full vehicle-simulation model based on the Volvo Car Corporation VSIM tool.
Technical Paper

Multi-material Approach with Integrated Joining Technologies in the New Volvo S80

1999-09-28
1999-01-3147
In May 1998 Volvo launched its most exclusive car model so far, the Volvo S80, which is aimed to compete with upper luxury segment products. The car is produced in the new production facility in the Torslanda plant in Sweden. Among the more highlighted features were a transversely mounted in-line six cylinder engine with a specially designed gearbox, electronic multiplex technology with 18 computers in the network, and safety features like stability and traction control (STC), front seats with integrated antiwhiplash system (WHIPS) and inflatable curtain (IC) for improved side impact protection. To fulfill the product's high demands on safety, quality and environmental care, the design, materials selection and assembly of the car body with high precision had to be very carefully engineered. As in previous product-/process development a holistic and concurrent engineering approach was necessary.
Technical Paper

On the Underbody Flow of a Simplified Estate

2000-03-06
2000-01-0485
The demand for more energy efficient vehicles is driven by environmental considerations and alternative engine technology. In order to reduce fuel consumption on future vehicles the power needed to propel the car has to be lowered. Hence, considerable efforts are needed to improve the aerodynamics. For a modern vehicle the potential for further improvements on drag is mainly to be found in the underbody region, Howell (1991). This requires more knowledge of the underbody flow and the flow around the wheels. In the present work the flow in the underbody region has been studied using a combination of experiments and calculations to obtain a more comprehensive database. The model chosen for this work was the so called ASMO model from Daimler Benz, which is a well known geometry that is available for the public on the internet. A simple model was preferred since the goal was to study the basic mechanisms behind drag generated by the underbody flow.
Technical Paper

Balancing Thermodynamic and Aerodynamic Attributes Through the Use of a Common CFD Model

2005-05-10
2005-01-2052
This paper describes how simultaneous numerical simulation of cooling performance and aerodynamic drag can be used to achieve attribute-balanced solutions. Traditionally at Volvo, evaluation of cooling performance and aerodynamics are done by separate teams using separate models and software. However, using this approach, any project changes can be evaluated in terms of their effect on cooling performance and drag from one single model. This enables the project to make decisions that are optimal in a more global perspective. If several proposals have similar levels of cooling performance, the proposal that yields the lowest overall drag can be chosen, thus reducing the fuel consumption of the vehicle. The first part of the paper discusses the prerequisites for the method in terms of boundary conditions, mesh and solution strategy. For the cooling performance part, the importance of high quality boundary conditions is reviewed.
Technical Paper

The Volvo 5-Cylinder Engine with 4-Valve Technology - A New Member of Volvos Modular Engine Family

1991-09-01
911906
During 1991 Volvo Car Corporation has introduced the new Volvo 850 GLT model featuring front wheel drive with transverse installation of the engine and gearbox. The powertrain; consists of a new in-line five-cylinder engine in combination with a four speed electronically controlled automatic gearbox or a five speed manual gearbox. The engine features DOHC 20 valves, V-VIS (Volvo Variable Induction System), well tuned exhaust system and microprocessor controlled engine management systems. The engine was designed and developed as a new member of Volvo's modular engine family. The first member was the in-line six-cylinder engine B6304F [1] introduced in 1990. The modular engines have a large number of identical components and the major components are machined in common transfer lines which makes the manufacturing process highly rational and cost-effective.
Journal Article

Measurements of Energy Used for Vehicle Interior Climate

2014-11-01
2014-01-9129
Fuel consumption of vehicles has received increased attention in recent years; however one neglected area that can have a large effect on this is the energy usage for the interior climate. This study aims to investigate the energy usage for the interior climate for different conditions by measurements on a complete vehicle. Twelve different NEDC tests in different temperatures and thermal states of the vehicle were completed in a climatic wind tunnel. Furthermore one temperature sweep from 43° to −18°C was also performed. The measurements focused on the heat flow of the air, from its sources, to its sink, i.e. compartment. In addition the electrical and mechanical loads of the climate system were included. The different sources of heating and cooling were, for the tested powertrain, waste heat from the engine, a fuel operated heater, heat pickup of the air, evaporator cooling and cooling from recirculation.
Journal Article

Simulation of Energy Used for Vehicle Interior Climate

2015-12-01
2015-01-9116
In recent years fuel consumption of passenger vehicles has received increasing attention by customers, the automotive industry, regulatory agencies and academia. However, some areas which affect the fuel consumption have received relatively small interest. One of these areas is the total energy used for vehicle interior climate which can have a large effect on real-world fuel consumption. Although there are several methods described in the literature for analyzing fuel consumption for parts of the climate control system, especially the Air-Condition (AC) system, the total fuel consumption including the vehicle interior climate has often been ignored, both in complete vehicle testing and simulation. The purpose of this research was to develop a model that predicts the total energy use for the vehicle interior climate. To predict the total energy use the model included sub models of the passenger compartment, the air-handling unit, the AC, the engine cooling system and the engine.
Journal Article

Investigating the Limits of Charge Motion and Combustion Duration in a High-Tumble Spark-Ignited Direct-Injection Engine

2016-10-17
2016-01-2245
This paper describes the experimental study of a tumble-flap mounted in the intake port of a single-cylinder spark-ignited gasoline engine. The research question addressed was whether an optimal tumble level could be found for the combustion system under investigation. Indicated fuel consumption was measured for a number of part-load operating points with the tumble-flap either open or closed. The experimental results were subjected to an energy balance analysis to understand which portion of the fuel energy was converted to work and how much was lost by incomplete combustion, heat losses to walls and to the exhaust gases, as well as to pumping losses. Closing the tumble-flap resulted in reduced fuel consumption only in a small area of the operating map: only at low-speed, low-load operation, a benefit could be obtained.
Journal Article

Investigation of Wheel Ventilation-Drag using a Modular Wheel Design Concept

2013-04-08
2013-01-0953
Passenger car fuel consumption is a constant concern for automotive companies and the contribution to fuel consumption from aerodynamics is well known. Several studies have been published on the aerodynamics of wheels. One area of wheel aerodynamics discussed in some of these earlier works is the so-called ventilation resistance. This study investigates ventilation resistance on a number of 17 inch rims, in the Volvo Cars Aerodynamic Wind Tunnel. The ventilation resistance was measured using a custom-built suspension with a tractive force measurement system installed in the Wheel Drive Units (WDUs). The study aims at identifying wheel design factors that have significant effect on the ventilation resistance for the investigated wheel size. The results show that it was possible to measure similar power requirements to rotate the wheels as was found in previous works.
Journal Article

An Evaluation of Different Combustion Strategies for SI Engines in a Multi-Mode Combustion Engine

2008-04-14
2008-01-0426
Future pressures to reduce the fuel consumption of passenger cars may require the exploitation of alternative combustion strategies for gasoline engines to replace, or use in combination with the conventional stoichiometric spark ignition (SSI) strategy. Possible options include homogeneous lean charge spark ignition (HLCSI), stratified charge spark ignition (SCSI) and homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI), all of which are intended to reduce pumping and thermal losses. In the work presented here four different combustion strategies were evaluated using the same engine: SSI, HLCSI, SCSI and HCCI. HLCSI was achieved by early injection and operating the engine lean, close to its stability limits. SCSI was achieved using the spray-guided technique with a centrally placed multi-hole injector and spark-plug. HCCI was achieved using a negative valve overlap to trap hot residuals and thus generate auto-ignition temperatures at the end of the compression stroke.
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