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Technical Paper

Aerodynamic Study of a Production Tractor Trailer Combination using Simulation and Wind Tunnel Methods

The importance of fuel economy and emission standards has increased rapidly with high fuel costs and new environmental regulations. This requires analysis techniques capable of designing the next generation long-haul truck to improve both fuel efficiency and cooling. In particular, it is important to have a predictive design tool to assess how exterior design changes impact aerodynamic performance. This study evaluates the use of a Lattice Boltzmann based numerical simulation and the National Research Council (NRC) Canada's wind tunnel to assess aerodynamic drag on a production Volvo VNL tractor-trailer combination. Comparisons are made between the wind tunnel and simulation to understand the influence of wind tunnel conditions on truck aerodynamic performance. The production VNL testing includes a full range of yaw angles to demonstrate the influence of cross wind on aerodynamic drag.
Technical Paper

Optimized Rigid Side Underride Protection Device Designs for Tractor-Trailers and Straight Trucks

This work describes the design and testing of side underride protection devices (SUPD) for tractor-trailers and straight trucks. Its goal is to reduce the incompatibility between small passenger cars and these large vehicles during side collisions. The purpose of these crash attenuating guards is to minimize occupant injury and passenger compartment intrusion. The methods presented utilize a regulation previously created and published for testing the effectiveness of these devices based on the principles of a force application device already implemented in the Canadian rear underride guard regulation. Topology and multi-objective optimization design processes are outlined using a proposed design road map to create the most feasible SUPD. The test vehicle in question is a 2010 Toyota Yaris which represents the 1100C class of vehicle from the Manual for Assessing Safety Hardware (MASH).
Technical Paper

Field Test Experience of a Combined DPF and Urea-SCR System Achieving EPA'07 Emission Levels

On-road emission measurements of 23 VN-trucks on a randomly chosen driving cycle, consisting of 10 miles two-lane and 8 miles four-lane road, showed tailpipe NOx emissions on fleet average of 0.96 g/bhp-hr, or 1.06 g/bhp-hr when including the time the exhaust gas temperature was below 200°C. Complementary measurements in a SET-cycle (13 point OICA -cycle) on a chassis dynamometer showed a tailpipe emission of 0.008 g PM per bhp-hr. Moreover, cost analysis show that the diesel fuel consumption remains unchanged whether the truck running on ULSD is equipped with a Combined Exhaust gas AfterTreatment System (CEATS) installed or not.
Journal Article

Aerodynamic Optimization of Trailer Add-On Devices Fully- and Partially-Skirted Trailer Configurations

As part of the United States Department of Energy's SuperTruck program, Volvo Trucks and its partners were tasked with demonstrating 50% improvement in overall freight efficiency for a tractor-trailer, relative to a best in class 2009 model year truck. This necessitated that significant gains be made in reducing aerodynamic drag of the tractor-trailer system, so trailer side-skirts and a trailer boat-tail were employed. A Lattice-Boltzmann based simulation method was used in conjunction with a Kriging Response Surface optimization process in order to efficiently describe a design space of seven independent parameters relating to boat-tail and side-skirt dimensions, and to find an optimal configuration. Part 1 concerns a fully-skirted tractor-trailer system, and consists of an initial phase of optimization, followed by a mid-project re-evaluation of constraints, and an additional period of optimization.
Journal Article

Combined Analysis of Cooling Airflow and Aerodynamic Drag for a Class 8 Tractor Trailer Combination

Long haul tractor design in the future will be challenged by freight efficiency standards and emission legislations. Along with any improvements in aerodynamics, this will also require additional cooling capacity to handle the increased heat rejection from next generation engines, waste heat recovery and exhaust gas recirculation systems. Fan engagement will also have to be minimized under highway conditions to maximize fuel economy. These seemingly contradictory requirements will require design optimization via analysis techniques capable of predicting both the aerodynamic drag and engine cooling airflow accurately. This study builds on previous work [1] using a Lattice Boltzmann based computational method on a Volvo VNL tractor trailer combination. Simulation results are compared to tests conducted at National Research Council (NRC) Canada's wind tunnel.
Technical Paper

Evaluating a Heavy-duty Truck Climate Control System using Thermal Comfort-focused Testing and Simulation Techniques

The design of efficient vehicle climate control systems involves reconciling two competing objectives: Maximizing the thermal comfort of occupants while simultaneously reducing the vehicle’s energy usage. Given the energy expenditure of traditional HVAC systems, efforts have been directed toward reducing their weight and power requirements. Consequently, vehicle manufacturers are increasingly investigating the use of thermal comfort as a design metric, rather than air temperature, which requires heating or cooling of the entire cabin air volume. Thermal comfort-focused technologies, such as localized heating and cooling strategies, have the potential to elicit favourable subjective responses to thermal environments even when the ambient air temperature in the cabin would otherwise fall outside of established acceptability guidelines.