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Technical Paper

Effect of Biodiesel and its Blends on Particulate Emissions from HSDI Diesel Engine

2010-04-12
2010-01-0798
The effect of biodiesel on the Particulate emissions is gaining significant attention particularly with the drive for the use of alternative fuels. The particulate matter (PM), especially having a diameter less than 50 nm called the Nanoparticles or Nucleation mode particles (NMPs), has been raising concerns about its effect on human health. To better understand the effect of biodiesel and its blends on particulate emissions, steady state tests were conducted on a small-bore single-cylinder high-speed direct-injection research diesel engine. The engine was fueled with Ultra-Low Sulfur Diesel (ULSD or B-00), a blend of 20% soy-derived biodiesel and 80% ULSD on volumetric basis (B-20), B-40, B-60, B-80 and 100% soy-derived biodiesel (B-100), equipped with a common rail injection system, EGR and swirl control systems at a load of 5 bar IMEP and constant engine speed of 1500 rpm.
Technical Paper

Near-Nozzle Structure of Diesel Sprays Affected by Internal Geometry of Injector Nozzle: Visualized by Single-Shot X-ray Imaging

2010-04-12
2010-01-0877
By taking advantage of high-intensity and high-brilliance x-ray beams available at the Advanced Photon Source (APS), ultrafast (150 ps) propagation-based phase-enhanced imaging was developed to visualize high-pressure high-speed diesel sprays in the optically dense near-nozzle region. The sub-ns temporal and μm spatial resolution allows us to capture the morphology of the high-speed fuel sprays traveling at 500 m/s with a negligible motion blur. Both quality and quantitative information about the spray feature can be readily obtained. In the experiment, two types of single-hole nozzles have been used, one with a hydroground orifice inlet and the other with a sharp one. Within 3 mm from the nozzle, the sprays from these nozzles behave differently, ranging from laminar flow with surface instability waves to turbulent flow. The sprays are correlated with the nozzle internal geometry, which provides practical information for both nozzle design and supporting numerical simulation models.
Technical Paper

Comparison between Combustion, Performance and Emission Characteristics of JP-8 and Ultra Low Sulfur Diesel Fuel in a Single Cylinder Diesel Engine

2010-04-12
2010-01-1123
JP-8 is an aviation turbine engine fuel recently introduced for use in military ground vehicle applications and generators which are mostly powered by diesel engines. Many of these engines are designed and developed for commercial use and need to be adapted for military applications. This requires more understanding of the auto- ignition and combustion characteristics of JP-8 under different engine operating conditions. This paper presents the results of a comparative analysis of an engine operation using JP-8 and ultra low sulfur diesel fuel (ULSD). Experiments were conducted on 0.42 liter single cylinder, high speed direct injection (HSDI) diesel engine equipped with a common rail injection system. The results indicate that the distillation properties of fuel have an effect on its vaporization rate. JP-8 evaporated faster and had shorter ignition delay as compared to ULSD. The fuel economy with JP-8 was better than ULSD.
Technical Paper

Effects of B20 Fuel and Catalyst Entrance Section Length on the Performance of UREA SCR in a Light-Duty Diesel Engine

2010-04-12
2010-01-1173
The current study focused on the effects B20 fuel (20% soybean-based biodiesel) and SCR entrance shapes on a light-duty, high-speed, 2.8L common-rail 4-cylinder diesel engine, at different exhaust temperatures. The results indicate that B20 has less deNOX efficiency at low temperature than ULSD, and that N₂O emission need to be characterized as well as NH₃ slip. If a mixer and enough mixing length are used, longer divergence section does not improve the deNOX efficiency significantly under the speed ranges tested.
Journal Article

Efficient Approximate Methods for Predicting Behaviors of Steel Hat Sections Under Axial Impact Loading

2010-04-12
2010-01-1015
Hat sections made of steel are frequently encountered in automotive body structural components such as front rails. These components can absorb significant amount of impact energy during collisions thereby protecting occupants of vehicles from severe injury. In the initial phase of vehicle design, it will be prudent to incorporate the sectional details of such a component based on an engineering target such as peak load, mean load, energy absorption, or total crush, or a combination of these parameters. Such a goal can be accomplished if efficient and reliable data-based models are available for predicting the performance of a section of given geometry as alternatives to time-consuming and detailed engineering analysis typically based on the explicit finite element method.
Technical Paper

Temperature Effect on Performance of a Commercial Fuel Filter for Biodiesel Blends with ULSD

2010-04-12
2010-01-0473
Biodiesel offers a potentially viable alternative fuel source for diesel automotive applications. However, biodiesel may present problems at colder temperatures due to the crystallization of fatty acid methyl esters and precipitation of other components, such as unreacted triglycerides and sterol glycosides in biodiesel. At lower temperatures, the fuel gels until it solidifies in the fuel lines, clogging the fuel filter, and shutting down the engine. A laboratory-based continuous loop fuel system was utilized to determine the flow properties at low temperatures of biodiesel in B100, B20, and B10 blends for soybean and choice white grease (pig fat) biodiesel fuel. The continuous loop fuel delivery system was designed to be similar to those that can be found in engines and vehicles currently in use, and provided a mechanical pump or an electric pump as a means to simulate systems found in the different types of vehicles.
Journal Article

Characteristics of Ion Current Signals in Compression Ignition and Spark Ignition Engines

2010-04-12
2010-01-0567
Ion current sensors have been considered for the feedback electronic control of gasoline and diesel engines and for onboard vehicles powered by both engines, while operating on their conventional cycles or on the HCCI mode. The characteristics of the ion current signal depend on the progression of the combustion process and the properties of the combustion products in each engine. There are large differences in the properties of the combustible mixture, ignition process and combustion in both engines, when they operate on their conventional cycles. In SI engines, the charge is homogeneous with an equivalence ratio close to unity, ignition is initiated by an electric spark and combustion is through a flame propagating from the spark plug into the rest of the charge.
Journal Article

Spray Characterization of Ethanol Gasoline Blends and Comparison to a CFD Model for a Gasoline Direct Injector

2010-04-12
2010-01-0601
Operation of flex fuel vehicles requires operation with a range of fuel properties. The significant differences in the heat of vaporization and energy density of E0-E100 fuels and the effect on spray development need to be fully comprehended when developing engine control strategies. Limited enthalpy for fuel vaporization needs to be accounted for when developing injection strategies for cold start, homogeneous and stratified operation. Spray imaging of multi-hole gasoline injectors with fuels ranging from E0 to E100 and environmental conditions that represent engine operating points from ambient cold start to hot conditions was performed in a spray chamber. Schlieren visualization technique was used to characterize the sprays and the results were compared with Laser Mie scattering and Back-lighting technique. Open chamber experiments were utilized to provide input and validation of a CFD model.
Technical Paper

Hybrid Electric Vehicle Architecture Selection for EcoCAR 3 Competition

2015-04-14
2015-01-1228
Abstract This paper presents the work performed by the Wayne State University (WSU) EcoCAR 3 student design competition team in its preparation for the hybrid electric vehicle architecture selection process. This process is recognized as one of the most pivotal steps in the EcoCAR 3 competition. With a key lesson learned from participation in EcoCAR 2 on “truly learning how to learn,” the team held additional training sessions on architecture selection tools and exercises with the goal of improving both fundamental and procedural skills. The work conducted represents a combination of the architecture feasibility study and final selection process in terms of content and procedure, respectively. At the end of this study the team was able to identify four potentially viable hybrid powertrain architectures, and thoroughly analyze the performance and packaging feasibility of various component options.
Technical Paper

Simultaneous In-Cylinder Surface Temperature Measurements with Thermocouple, Laser-induced Phosphorescence, and Dual Wavelength Infrared Diagnostic Techniques in an Optical Engine

2015-04-14
2015-01-1658
Abstract As engine efficiency targets continue to rise, additional improvements must consider reduction of heat transfer losses. The development of advanced heat transfer models and realistic boundary conditions for simulation based engine design both require accurate in-cylinder wall temperature measurements. A novel dual wavelength infrared diagnostic has been developed to measure in-cylinder surface temperatures with high temporal resolution. The diagnostic has the capability to measure low amplitude, high frequency temperature variations, such as those occurring during the gas exchange process. The dual wavelength ratio method has the benefit of correcting for background scattering reflections and the emission from the optical window itself. The assumption that background effects are relatively constant during an engine cycle is shown to be valid over a range of intake conditions during motoring.
Technical Paper

Experimental Validation of Pediatric Thorax Finite Element Model under Dynamic Loading Condition and Analysis of Injury

2013-04-08
2013-01-0456
Previously, a 10-year-old (YO) pediatric thorax finite element model (FEM) was developed and verified against child chest stiffness data measured from clinical cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). However, the CPR experiments were performed at relatively low speeds, with a maximum loading rate of 250 mm/s. Studies showed that the biomechanical responses of human thorax exhibited rate sensitive characteristics. As such, the studies of dynamic responses of the pediatric thorax FEM are needed. Experimental pediatric cadaver data in frontal pendulum impacts and diagonal belt dynamic loading tests were used for dynamic validation. Thoracic force-deflection curves between test and simulation were compared. Strains predicted by the FEM and the injuries observed in the cadaver tests were also compared for injury assessment and analysis. This study helped to further improve the 10 YO pediatric thorax FEM.
Technical Paper

Temperature Control of Water with Heating, Cooling and Mixing in a Process with Recycle Loop

2014-04-01
2014-01-0652
Abstract A hot and cold water mixing process with a steam condenser and a chilled water heat exchanger is set up for an engine EGR fouling test. The test rig has water recycled in the loop of a pump, heat exchangers, a three-way mixing valve, and a test EGR unit. The target unit temperature is controlled by a heating, cooling and mixing process with individual valves regulating the flow-rate of saturated steam, chilled water and mixing ratio. The challenges in control design are the dead-time, interaction, nonlinearity and multivariable characteristics of heat exchangers, plus the flow recycle in the system. A systems method is applied to extract a simple linear model for control design. The method avoids the nonlinearity and interaction among different temperatures at inlet, outlet and flow-rate. The test data proves the effectiveness of systems analysis and modeling methodology. As a result, the first-order linear model facilitates the controller design.
Journal Article

An Unbiased Estimate of the Relative Crash Risk of Cell Phone Conversation while Driving an Automobile

2014-04-01
2014-01-0446
A key aim of research into cell phone tasks is to obtain an unbiased estimate of their relative risk (RR) for crashes. This paper re-examines five RR estimates of cell phone conversation in automobiles. The Toronto and Australian studies estimated an RR near 4, but used subjective estimates of driving and crash times. The OnStar, 100-Car, and a recent naturalistic study used objective measures of driving and crash times and estimated an RR near 1, not 4 - a major discrepancy. Analysis of data from GPS trip studies shows that people were in the car only 20% of the time on any given prior day at the same clock time they were in the car on a later day. Hence, the Toronto estimate of driving time during control windows must be reduced from 10 to 2 min.
Journal Article

Self-Regulation Minimizes Crash Risk from Attentional Effects of Cognitive Load during Auditory-Vocal Tasks

2014-04-01
2014-01-0448
This study reanalyzes the data from a recent experimental report from the University of Utah investigating the effect on driving performance of auditory-vocal secondary tasks (such as cell phone and passenger conversations, speech-to-text, and a complex artificial cognitive task). The current objective is to estimate the relative risk of crashes associated with such auditory-vocal tasks. Contrary to the Utah study's assumption of an increase in crash risk from the attentional effects of cognitive load, a deeper analysis of the Utah data shows that driver self-regulation provides an effective countermeasure that offsets possible increases in crash risk. For example, drivers self-regulated their following distances to compensate for the slight increases in brake response time while performing auditory-vocal tasks. This new finding is supported by naturalistic driving data showing that cell phone conversation does not increase crash risk above that of normal baseline driving.
Technical Paper

Frontal Impact Responsesof Generic Steel Front Bumper Crush Can Assemblies

2014-04-01
2014-01-0550
Abstract The present investigation details an experimental procedure for frontal impact responses of a generic steel front bumper crush can (FBCC) assembly subjected to a rigid full and 40% offset impact. There is a paucity of studies focusing on component level tests with FBCCs, and of those, speeds carried out are of slower velocities. Predominant studies in literature pertain to full vehicle testing. Component level studies have importance as vehicles aim to decrease weight. As materials, such as carbon fiber or aluminum, are applied to vehicle structures, computer aided models are required to evaluate performance. A novel component level test procedure is valuable to aid in CAE correlation. All the tests were conducted using a sled-on-sled testing method. Several high-speed cameras, an IR (Infrared) thermal camera, and a number of accelerometers were utilized to study impact performance of the FBCC samples.
Journal Article

A New Technique to Determine the Burning Velocity in a Gasoline Direct Injection Engine

2014-04-01
2014-01-1176
Many approaches have been taken to determine the burning velocity in internal combustion engines. Experimentally, the burning velocity has been determined in optically accessible gasoline engines by tracking the propagation of the flame front from the spark plug to the end of the combustion chamber. These experiments are costly as they require special imaging techniques and major modifications in the engine structure. Another approach to determine the burning velocity is from 3D CFD simulation models. These models require basic information about the mechanisms of combustion which are not available for distillate fuels in addition to many assumptions that have to be made to determine the burning velocity. Such models take long periods of computational time for execution and have to be calibrated and validated through experimentation.
Technical Paper

The Development of an Electronic Control Unit for a High Pressure Common Rail Diesel/Natural Gas Dual-Fuel Engine

2014-04-01
2014-01-1168
Abstract Natural gas has been considered to be one of the most promising alternative fuels due to its lower NOx and soot emissions, less carbon footprint as well as attractive price. Furthermore, higher octane number makes it suitable for high compression ratio application compared with other gaseous fuels. For better economical and lower emissions, a turbocharged, four strokes, direct injection, high pressure common rail diesel engine has been converted into a diesel/natural gas dual-fuel engine. For dual-fuel engine operation, natural gas as the main fuel is sequentially injected into intake manifold, and a very small amount of diesel is directly injected into cylinder as the ignition source. In this paper, a dual-fuel electronic control unit (ECU) based on the PowerPC 32-bit microprocessor was developed. It cooperates with the original diesel ECU to control the fuel injection of the diesel/natural gas dual-fuel engine.
Technical Paper

Simulation of the Effect of Recirculated Gases on Ignition Delay During Cold Starting of a Direct Injection Diesel Engine

2011-04-12
2011-01-0838
Simulations using CFD and chemical kinetics models have been applied to gain a better understanding of the effect of the recirculated gases on the autoignition process during cold starting of a direct injection diesel engine. The cranking gases recirculated (CGR) contain fuel vapor and partial oxidation products which affect the autoignition process in different ways. Some hydrocarbons (HCs) species enhance the reaction rates and reduce ignition delay. Meanwhile other HCs species and the partial oxidation products of the autoignition process have an opposing effect. The simulation covered a wide range of the hydrocarbons and aldehydes concentrations and their effect on the ignition delay in a 1.2L Ford DIATA 4-cylinders, water cooled, turbocharged and intercooled diesel engine. The simulated opposing effects of HCs and HCHO on the ignition delay are validated by experimental results at room temperature.
Technical Paper

A Practical Time-Domain Approach to Controller Design and Calibration for Applications in Automotive Industry

2011-04-12
2011-01-0693
This paper summarizes a systematic approach to control of nonlinear automotive systems exposed to fast transients. This approach is based on a combined application of hardware characterization, which inverts nonlinearities, and conventional Proportional-plus-Integral-plus-Derivative (PID) control. The approach renders the closed-loop system dynamics more transparent and simplifies the controller design and calibration for applications in automotive industry. The authors have found this approach effective in presenting and teaching PID controller design and calibration guidelines to automotive engineering audience, who at times may not have formal training in controls but need to understand the development and calibration process of simple controllers.
Journal Article

Characterization of the Near-Field Spray and Internal Flow of Single-Hole and Multi-Hole Sac Nozzles using Phase Contrast X-Ray Imaging and CFD

2011-04-12
2011-01-0681
It is well know that the internal flow field and nozzle geometry affected the spray behavior, but without high-speed microscopic visualization, it is difficult to characterize the spray structure in details. Single-hole diesel injectors have been used in fundamental spray research, while most direct-injection engines use multi-hole nozzle to tailor to the combustion chamber geometry. Recent engine trends also use smaller orifice and higher injection pressure. This paper discussed the quasi-steady near-nozzle diesel spray structures of an axisymmetric single-hole nozzle and a symmetric two-hole nozzle configuration, with a nominal nozzle size of 130 μm, and an attempt to correlate the observed structure to the internal flow structure using computational fluid dynamic (CFD) simulation. The test conditions include variation of injection pressure from 30 to 100 MPa, using both diesel and biodiesel fuels, under atmospheric condition.
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