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Technical Paper

Experimental Determination of the Instantaneous Frictional Torque in Multicylinder Engines

An experimental method for determining the Instantaneous Frictional Torque (IFT) using pressure transducers on every cylinder and speed measurements at both ends of the crankshaft is presented. The speed variation measured at one end of the crankshaft is distorted by torsional vibrations making it difficult to establish a simple and direct correlation between the acting torque and measured speed. Using a lumped mass model of the crankshaft and modal analysis techniques, the contributions of the different natural modes to the motion along the crankshaft axis are determined. Based on this model a method was devised to combine speed measurements made at both ends of the crankshaft in such a way as to eliminate the influence of torsional vibrations and obtain the equivalent rigid body motion of the crankshaft. This motion, the loading torque and the gas pressure torque are utilized to determine the IFT.
Technical Paper

Active Control of Vibration and Noise in Automotive Timing Chain Drives

Vibration and noise are generally considered to be the major problems in power transmission chains. This paper presents an adaptive, active control strategy for the reduction of vibration in automotive timing chain drives and examines the effects of the active control on noise reduction. Experimental results show that the average vibration amplitude is diminished by as much as 90% under low to moderate tension conditions, and the chain noise is reduced by about 3 dB. The experimental apparatus has low cost and is readily applicable to an industrial environment.
Technical Paper

Transient Flow Characteristics Inside the Catalytic Converter of a Firing Gasoline Engine

An experimental study was performed, using cycle-resolved laser Doppler velocimetry (LDV) technique, to characterize the exhaust flow structure inside a catalytic converter retro-fitted to a firing four-cylinder gasoline engine over different operating conditions. A small fraction of titanium (IV) isopropoxide was dissolved in gasoline to generate titanium dioxide during combustion as seeding particles for LDV measurements. It was found that in the front plane of the catalytic monolith, the velocity is highly fluctuating due to the pulsating nature of the engine exhaust flow, which strongly depends on the engine operating conditions. Under unloaded condition, four pairs of major peaks are clearly observed in the time history of the velocity, which correspond to the main exhaust events of each individual cylinder.
Technical Paper

Noise Radiation from Axial Flow Fans

A semi-empirical formula [1] for predicting noise spectra of an engine cooling fan assembly is developed. In deriving this formulation it is assumed that sound radiation from an axial flow fan is primarily due to fluctuating forces exerted on the fan blade surface. These fluctuating forces are correlated to the total lift force exerted on the fan blade, and is approximated by pressure pulses that decay both in space and time. The radiated acoustic pressure is then expressed in terms of superposition of contributions from these pressure pulses, and the corresponding line spectrum is obtained by taking a Fourier series expansion. To simulate the broad band sounds, a normal distribution-like shape function is designed which divides the frequency into consecutive bands centered at the blade passage frequency and its harmonics. The amplitude of this shape function at the center frequency is unity but decays exponentially. The decay rate decreases with an increase in the number of bands.
Technical Paper

Transient Flow and Pressure Characteristics Inside a Closed-Coupled Catalytic Converter

An experimental study was carried out to characterize the exhaust flow structure inside the closed-coupled catalytic converter, which is installed on a firing four-cylinder 12-valve passenger car gasoline engine. Simultaneous velocity and pressure measurements were taken using cycle-resolved Laser Doppler anemometer (LDA) technique and pressure transducer. A small fraction of titanium (IV) iso-propoxide was dissolved in gasoline to generate titanium dioxide during combustion as seeding particles for the LDA measurements. It was found that the velocity is highly fluctuating due to the pulsating nature of the engine exhaust flow, which strongly depends on the engine operating conditions and the measuring locations. The pressure oscillation is correlated with the transient exhaust flow characteristics. The main exhaust flow event from each cylinder can only be observed at the certain region in front of the monolith brick.
Technical Paper

Cycle-by-Cycle Analysis of HC Emissions During Cold Start of Gasoline Engines

A cycle-by-cycle analysis of HC emissions from each cylinder of a four-stroke V-6, 3.3 L production engine was made during cold start. The HC emissions were measured in the exhaust port using a high frequency flame ionization detector (FID). The effect of the initial startup position of the piston and valves in the cycle on combustion and HC emissions from each cylinder was examined. The mass of fuel injected, burned and emitted was calculated for each cycle. The equivalence ratio of the charge in the firing cycles was determined. The analysis covered the first 120 cycles and included the effect of engine transients on HC emissions.
Technical Paper

Diesel Cold-Starting Study Using Optically Accessible Engines

An experimental and numerical study was carried out to simulate the diesel spray behavior during cold starting conditions inside two single-cylinder optically accessible engines. One is an AVL single-cylinder research diesel engine converted for optical access; the other is a TACOM/LABECO engine retrofitted with mirror-coupled endoscope access. The first engine is suitable for sophisticated optical diagnostics but is constrained to limited consecutive fuel injections or firings. The second one is located inside a micro-processor controlled cold room; therefore it can be operated under a wide range of practical engine conditions and is ideal for cycle-to-cycle variation study. The intake and blow-by flow rates are carefully measured in order to clearly define the operation condition. In addition to cylinder pressure measurement, the experiment used 16-mm high-speed movie photography to directly visualize the global structures of the sprays and ignition process.
Technical Paper

An Experimental Study of the Flow Structure Inside the Catalytic Converter of a Gasoline Engine

The flow structure inside the catalytic converter of gasoline engines is very important for consideration of the catalyst light-off condition, converter durability and conversion efficiency. However, the available experimental data under actual engine exhaust conditions are quite limited due to its complicated configuration, critical operating conditions and difficult optical access. Therefore, an experimental study was performed, using laser Doppler velocimetry technique, to measure the velocity distributions inside two production dual-monolith catalytic converters fitted on a firing gasoline engine over several engine operating conditions. This paper reports the normal velocity characteristics measured in a plane 1 mm away from the front surface of first monolith. A small fraction of titanium (IV) isopropoxide was dissolved in gasoline for generating titanium dioxide seeding particles during the engine combustion.
Technical Paper

White Smoke Emissions Under Cold Starting of Diesel Engines

More stringent regulations have been enforced over the past few years on diesel exhaust emissions. White smoke emission, a characteristic of diesel engines during cold starting, needs to be controlled in order to meet these regulations. This study investigates the sources and constituents of white smoke. The effects of fuel properties, design and operating parameters on the formation and emissions of white smoke are discussed. A new technique is developed to measure the real time gaseous hydrocarbons (HC) as well as the solid and liquid particulates. Experiments were conducted on a single cylinder direct injection diesel engine in a cold room. The gaseous HC emissions are measured using a high frequency response flame ionization detector. The liquid and solid particulates are collected on a paper filter placed upstream of the sampling line of the FID and their masses are determined.
Technical Paper

An Experimental and Analytical Investigation of the Spray Structure from Automotive Port Injectors

Port fuel injection system in gasoline engines is receiving an increasing attention for its potential advantages in meeting the constrains of simultaneous reduction in fuel consumption and exhaust emission, and maintaining a good engine performance. The structure of port injector spray dominates the mixture preparation process and strongly affect the subsequent engine combustion characteristics over a wide range of operating conditions in port-injection gasoline engines. In this paper, an experimental and analytical study is made to characterize the breakup mechanism and atomization process of the non-air-assisted port injector sprays in gasoline engines. The liquid sprays resulted from various types of current and development-type automotive fuel injectors were visualized using planar laser-induced fluorescence imaging technique. A comparison was made on the spray structure of the single hole and multi-hole injectors.
Technical Paper

Dynamic Human Ankle Response to Inversion and Eversion

There are many mechanisms for ankle injury to front seat occupants involved in automotive impacts. This study addresses injuries to the ankle joint involving inversion or eversion, in particular at high rates of loading such as might occur in automotive accidents. Injuries included unilateral malleolar fractures and ligament tears, and talus and calcaneous avulsions. Twenty tests have been performed so far, two of them using Hybrid III lower leg and the rest using cadaveric specimens. The specimens were loaded dynamically on the bottom of the foot via a pneumatic cylinder in either an inversion or eversion direction at fixed dorsiflexion and plantarflexion angles. The applied force and accelerations have been measured as well as all the reaction forces and moments. High-speed film was used to obtain the inversiordeversion angle of the foot relative to the tibia and for following ligament stretch.
Technical Paper

Finite Element Modeling of Direct Head Impact

A 3-D finite element human head model has been developed to study the dynamic response of the human head to direct impact by a rigid impactor. The model simulated closely the main anatomical features of an average adult head. It included the scalp, a three-layered skull, cerebral spinal fluid (CSF), dura mater, falx cerebri, and brain. The layered skull, cerebral spinal fluid, and brain were modeled as brick elements with one-point integration. The scalp, dura mater, and falx cerebri were treated as membrane elements. To simulate the strain rate dependent characteristics of the soft tissues, the brain and the scalp were considered as viscoelastic materials. The other tissues of the head were assumed to be elastic. The model contains 6080 nodes, 5456 brick elements, and 1895 shell elements. To validate the head model, it was impacted frontally by a cylinder to simulate the cadaveric tests performed by Nahum et. al. (8).
Technical Paper

In-Situ Phase-Shift Measurement of the Time-Resolved UBHC Emissions

The UBHC emissions during cold starting need to be controlled in order to meet the future stringent standards. This requires a better understanding of the characteristics of the time resolved UBHC signal measured by a high frequency FID and its phasing with respect to the valve events. The computer program supplied with the instrument and currently used to compute the phase shift has many uncertainties due to the unsteady nature of engine operation during starting. A new technique is developed to measure the in-situ phase shift of the UBHC signal under the transient thermodynamic and dynamic conditions of the engine. The UBHC concentration is measured at two locations in the exhaust manifold of one cylinder in a multicylinder port injected gasoline engine. The two locations are 77 mm apart. The downstream probe is positioned opposite to a solenoid-operated injector which delivers a gaseous jet of hydrocarbon-free nitrogen upon command.
Technical Paper

Transient Engine and Piston Friction During Starting

The instantaneous frictional torque (IFT) of the engine and the piston-ring assembly frictional force (PRAFF) were determined during cranking and starting of a direct injection single cylinder diesel engine. The measurements included the cylinder gas pressure, the instantaneous torque of the electric starter, the angular velocity of the crankshaft and the axial force on the connecting rod. The engine and piston friction were determined every crank angle degree for all the cycles from the time the starter was engaged to the time the engine reached the idling speed. The data was analyzed and a comparison was made between the friction in successive cycles.
Technical Paper

A Flow Network Approach to Vehicle Underhood Heat Transfer Problem

A flow network method was developed to predict the underhood temperature distribution of an automobile. The method involves the solution of simplified energy and momentum equations of the air flow in control volumes defined by subdividing the air space between the surfaces of the underhood components and the front-end geometry. The control volumes are interconnected by ducts with branches and bends to form a flow network. Conservation of mass and momentum with appropriate pressure-loss coefficients leads to a system of algebraic equations to be solved for the flow rates through each volume. The computed flow rates are transferred to a thermal model to calculate the temperatures of the air and the major vehicle components that affect the underhood environment. The method was applied to a 1986 3.0L Taurus and compared with vehicle experiments conducted in a windtunnel.
Technical Paper

Starting of Diesel Engines: Uncontrolled Fuel Injection Problems

Many problems can develop from the uncontrolled fuel injection during cranking and starting of diesel engines. Some of the problems are related to excessive wear as a result of the high peak pressures reached upon combustion after misfiring, the relatively low rotating speeds and the lack of formation of a lubricating oil film between the interacting surfaces. Another problem is the emission of high amounts of unburned hydrocarbons and white smoke. Experimental results are given for a single cylinder and a multicylinder diesel engine, for the instantaneous angular velocity and cylinder pressures from the starter-on point until the engine fires. The causes of misfiring during cranking are investigated. The role of the increased blow-by gases on the autoignition process at the low cranking speeds is analyzed both analytically and experimentally. The contribution of the instantaneous angular velocity at the time of injection, on the autoignition process is investigated.
Technical Paper

Comparison between Combustion, Performance and Emission Characteristics of JP-8 and Ultra Low Sulfur Diesel Fuel in a Single Cylinder Diesel Engine

JP-8 is an aviation turbine engine fuel recently introduced for use in military ground vehicle applications and generators which are mostly powered by diesel engines. Many of these engines are designed and developed for commercial use and need to be adapted for military applications. This requires more understanding of the auto- ignition and combustion characteristics of JP-8 under different engine operating conditions. This paper presents the results of a comparative analysis of an engine operation using JP-8 and ultra low sulfur diesel fuel (ULSD). Experiments were conducted on 0.42 liter single cylinder, high speed direct injection (HSDI) diesel engine equipped with a common rail injection system. The results indicate that the distillation properties of fuel have an effect on its vaporization rate. JP-8 evaporated faster and had shorter ignition delay as compared to ULSD. The fuel economy with JP-8 was better than ULSD.
Technical Paper

Interactions of Multi-hole DI Sprays with Charge Motion and their Implications to Flexible Valve-trained Engine Performance

Advanced valvetrain coupled with Direct Injection (DI) provides an opportunity to simultaneous reduction of fuel consumption and emissions. Because of their robustness and cost performance, multi-hole injectors are being adopted as gasoline DI fuel injectors. Ethanol and ethanol-gasoline blends synergistically improve the performance of a turbo-charged DI gasoline engine, especially in down-sized, down-sped and variable-valvetrain engine architecture. This paper presents Mie-scattering spray imaging results taken with an Optical Accessible Engine (OAE). OAE offers dynamic and realistic in-cylinder charge motion with direct imaging capability, and the interaction with the ethanol spray with the intake air is studied. Two types of cams which are designed for Early Intake Valve Close (EIVC) and Later Intake Valve Close (LIVC) are tested, and the effect of variable valve profile and deactivation of one of the intake valves are discussed.
Technical Paper

Effect of Using Biodiesel (B-20) and Combustion Phasing on Combustion and Emissions in a HSDI Diesel Engine

The use of biodiesel and its blends with ultra low sulfur diesel (ULSD) is gaining significant importance due to its ability to burn in conventional diesel engines with minor modifications. However the chemical and physical properties of biodiesel are different compared to the conventional ULSD. These differences directly impact the injection, spray formation, auto ignition and combustion processes which in turn affect the engine-out emissions. To understand the effect of fueling with B-20, tests were conducted on a single cylinder 0.42L direct injection research diesel engine. The engine is equipped with a common rail injection system, variable EGR and swirl control systems and was operated at a constant engine speed of 1500 rpm and 3 bar IMEP to simulated turbocharged conditions. Injection timing and duration were adjusted with B-20 at different locations of peak premixed combustions (LPPC) and two different swirl ratios to achieve 3 bar IMEP.
Technical Paper

Multi Sensing Fuel Injector for Electronically Controlled Diesel Engines

Internal combustion engine control requires feedback signals to the ECU in order to meet the increasingly stringent emissions standards. Reducing the number of on-board sensors needed for proper engine performance would reduce the cost and complexity of the electronic system. This paper presents a new technique to enable one engine element, the fuel injector, to perform multiple sensing tasks in addition to its primary task of delivering the fuel into the cylinder. The injector is instrumented within an electric circuit to produce a signal indicative of the ionization produced from the combustion process in electronically controlled diesel engines. The output of the multi sensing fuel injector (MSFI) system can be used as a feedback signal to the engine control unit (ECU) for injection timing and diagnostics of the injection and combustion processes.