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Journal Article

Characterization of the Near-Field Spray and Internal Flow of Single-Hole and Multi-Hole Sac Nozzles using Phase Contrast X-Ray Imaging and CFD

It is well know that the internal flow field and nozzle geometry affected the spray behavior, but without high-speed microscopic visualization, it is difficult to characterize the spray structure in details. Single-hole diesel injectors have been used in fundamental spray research, while most direct-injection engines use multi-hole nozzle to tailor to the combustion chamber geometry. Recent engine trends also use smaller orifice and higher injection pressure. This paper discussed the quasi-steady near-nozzle diesel spray structures of an axisymmetric single-hole nozzle and a symmetric two-hole nozzle configuration, with a nominal nozzle size of 130 μm, and an attempt to correlate the observed structure to the internal flow structure using computational fluid dynamic (CFD) simulation. The test conditions include variation of injection pressure from 30 to 100 MPa, using both diesel and biodiesel fuels, under atmospheric condition.
Technical Paper

Multi Sensing Fuel Injector for Electronically Controlled Diesel Engines

Internal combustion engine control requires feedback signals to the ECU in order to meet the increasingly stringent emissions standards. Reducing the number of on-board sensors needed for proper engine performance would reduce the cost and complexity of the electronic system. This paper presents a new technique to enable one engine element, the fuel injector, to perform multiple sensing tasks in addition to its primary task of delivering the fuel into the cylinder. The injector is instrumented within an electric circuit to produce a signal indicative of the ionization produced from the combustion process in electronically controlled diesel engines. The output of the multi sensing fuel injector (MSFI) system can be used as a feedback signal to the engine control unit (ECU) for injection timing and diagnostics of the injection and combustion processes.
Journal Article

Role of Volatility in the Development of JP-8 Surrogates for Diesel Engine Application

Surrogates for JP-8 have been developed in the high temperature gas phase environment of gas turbines. In diesel engines, the fuel is introduced in the liquid phase where volatility plays a major role in the formation of the combustible mixture and autoignition reactions that occur at relatively lower temperatures. In this paper, the role of volatility on the combustion of JP-8 and five different surrogate fuels was investigated in the constant volume combustion chamber of the Ignition Quality Tester (IQT). IQT is used to determine the derived cetane number (DCN) of diesel engine fuels according to ASTM D6890. The surrogate fuels were formulated such that their DCNs matched that of JP-8, but with different volatilities. Tests were conducted to investigate the effect of volatility on the autoignition and combustion characteristics of the surrogates using a detailed analysis of the rate of heat release immediately after the start of injection.
Journal Article

A New Technique to Determine the Burning Velocity in a Gasoline Direct Injection Engine

Many approaches have been taken to determine the burning velocity in internal combustion engines. Experimentally, the burning velocity has been determined in optically accessible gasoline engines by tracking the propagation of the flame front from the spark plug to the end of the combustion chamber. These experiments are costly as they require special imaging techniques and major modifications in the engine structure. Another approach to determine the burning velocity is from 3D CFD simulation models. These models require basic information about the mechanisms of combustion which are not available for distillate fuels in addition to many assumptions that have to be made to determine the burning velocity. Such models take long periods of computational time for execution and have to be calibrated and validated through experimentation.
Technical Paper

Characterization of Multi-hole Spray and Mixing of Ethanol and Gasoline Fuels under DI Engine Conditions

Because of their robustness and cost performance, multi-hole gasoline injectors are being adopted as the direct injection (DI) fuel injector of choice as vehicle manufacturers look for ways to reduce fuel consumption without sacrificing power and emission performance. To realize the full benefits of direct injection, the resulting spray needs to be well targeted, atomized, and appropriately mixed with charge air for the desirable fuel vapor concentration distributions in the combustion chamber. Ethanol and ethanol-gasoline blends synergistically improve the turbo-charged DI gasoline performance, especially in down-sized, down-sped and variable-valve-train engine architecture. This paper presents the spray imaging results from two multi-hole DI gasoline injectors with different design, fueled with pure ethanol (E100) or gasoline (E0), under homogeneous and stratified-charge conditions that represent typical engine operating points.
Technical Paper

Interactions of Multi-hole DI Sprays with Charge Motion and their Implications to Flexible Valve-trained Engine Performance

Advanced valvetrain coupled with Direct Injection (DI) provides an opportunity to simultaneous reduction of fuel consumption and emissions. Because of their robustness and cost performance, multi-hole injectors are being adopted as gasoline DI fuel injectors. Ethanol and ethanol-gasoline blends synergistically improve the performance of a turbo-charged DI gasoline engine, especially in down-sized, down-sped and variable-valvetrain engine architecture. This paper presents Mie-scattering spray imaging results taken with an Optical Accessible Engine (OAE). OAE offers dynamic and realistic in-cylinder charge motion with direct imaging capability, and the interaction with the ethanol spray with the intake air is studied. Two types of cams which are designed for Early Intake Valve Close (EIVC) and Later Intake Valve Close (LIVC) are tested, and the effect of variable valve profile and deactivation of one of the intake valves are discussed.
Technical Paper

Experimental and Computational Analysis of Impact of Self Recirculation Casing Treatment on Turbocharger Compressor

Self recirculation casing treatment has been showed to be an effective technique to extend the flow range of the compressor. However, the mechanism of its surge extension on turbocharger compressor is less understood. Investigation and comparison of internal flow filed will help to understand its impact on the compressor performance. In present study, experimentally validated CFD analysis was employed to study the mechanism of surge extension on the turbocharger compressor. Firstly a turbocharger compressor with replaceable inserts near the shroud of the impeller inlet was designed so that the overall performance of the compressor with and without self recirculation casing treatment could be tested and compared. Two different self recirculation casing treatments had been tested: one is conventional self recirculation casing treatment and the other one has deswirl vanes inside the casing treatment passage.
Technical Paper

Fundamental Understanding of a Multi-Sensing Piezo Fuel Injector Signal and Its Applications in Diagnosis

Electronic controls in internal combustion engines require an in-cylinder combustion sensor to produce a feedback signal to the ECU (Engine Control Unit). Recent research indicated that the ion current sensor has many advantages over the pressure transducer, related mainly to lower cost. Modified glow plugs in diesel engines, and fuel injectors in both gasoline and diesel engines can be utilized as ion current sensors without the addition any part or drilling holes in the cylinder head needed for the pressure transducer. Multi sensing fuel injector (MSFI) system is a new technique which instruments the fuel injector with an electric circuit to perform multiple sensing tasks including functioning as an ion sensor in addition to its primary task of delivering the fuel into the cylinder. It is necessary to fundamentally understand MSFI system.
Journal Article

In-Cylinder Wall Temperature Influence on Unburned Hydrocarbon Emissions During Transitional Period in an Optical Engine Using a Laser-Induced Phosphorescence Technique

Emissions of Unburned Hydrocarbons (UHC) from diesel engines are a particular concern during the starting process, when after-treatment devices are typically below optimal operating temperatures. Drivability in the subsequent warm-up phase is also impaired by large cyclic fluctuations in mean effective pressure (MEP). This paper discusses in-cylinder wall temperature influence on unburned hydrocarbon emissions and combustion stability during the starting and warm-up process in an optical engine. A laser-induced phosphorescence technique is used for quantitative measurements of in-cylinder wall temperatures just prior to start of injection (SOI), which are correlated to engine out UHC emission mole fractions and combustion phasing during starting sequences over a range of charge densities, at a fixed fueling rate. Squish zone cylinder wall temperature shows significant influence on engine out UHC emissions during the warm-up process.
Journal Article

On-Board Fuel Identification using Artificial Neural Networks

On-board fuel identification is important to ensure engine safe operation, similar power output, fuel economy and emissions levels when different fuels are used. Real-time detection of physical and chemical properties of the fuel requires the development of identifying techniques based on a simple, non-intrusive sensor. The measured crankshaft speed signal is already available on series engine and can be utilized to estimate at least one of the essential combustion parameters such as peak pressure and its location, rate of cylinder pressure rise and start of combustion, which are an indicative of the ignition properties of the fuel. Using a dynamic model of the crankshaft numerous methods have been previously developed to identify the fuel type but all with limited applications in terms of number of cylinders and computational resources for real time control.
Technical Paper

Transient Flow and Pressure Characteristics Inside a Closed-Coupled Catalytic Converter

An experimental study was carried out to characterize the exhaust flow structure inside the closed-coupled catalytic converter, which is installed on a firing four-cylinder 12-valve passenger car gasoline engine. Simultaneous velocity and pressure measurements were taken using cycle-resolved Laser Doppler anemometer (LDA) technique and pressure transducer. A small fraction of titanium (IV) iso-propoxide was dissolved in gasoline to generate titanium dioxide during combustion as seeding particles for the LDA measurements. It was found that the velocity is highly fluctuating due to the pulsating nature of the engine exhaust flow, which strongly depends on the engine operating conditions and the measuring locations. The pressure oscillation is correlated with the transient exhaust flow characteristics. The main exhaust flow event from each cylinder can only be observed at the certain region in front of the monolith brick.
Technical Paper

The Influence of Surrogate Blood Vessels on the Impact Response of a Physical Model of the Brain

Cerebral blood vessels are an integral part of the brain and may play a role in the response of the brain to impact. The purpose of this study was to quantify the effects of surrogate vessels on the deformation patterns of a physical model of the brain under various impact conditions. Silicone gel and tubing were used as surrogates for brain tissue and blood vessels, respectively. Two aluminum cylinders representing a coronal section of the brain were constructed. One cylinder was filled with silicone gel only, and the other was filled with silicone gel and silicone tubing arranged in the radial direction in the peripheral region. An array of markers was embedded in the gel in both cylinders to facilitate strain calculation via high-speed video analysis. Both cylinders were simultaneously subjected to a combination of linear and angular acceleration using a two-segment pendulum.
Technical Paper

Statistical Model and Simulation of Engine Torque and Speed Correlation

Even under steady state operating conditions, the pressure variation in individual cylinders, and the corresponding gas-pressure torque are subjected to small random fluctuations from cycle to cycle. The gas-pressure torque of a cylinder may be expressed as a sum of harmonically variable components, each harmonic being affected by these fluctuations. A probabilistic model of the vector interpreting such a harmonic component is developed and used to determine the statistical parameters of the resultant random vector representing the corresponding harmonic order of the engine torque. At the low frequencies of the lowest harmonic orders of the engine torque the crankshaft behaves like a rigid body. This behavior permits to correlate the statistical parameters of the same harmonic components of the resultant torque and of the measured engine speed. This correlation is proved by experiments and used to identify faulty cylinders.
Technical Paper

A Faster Algorithm for the Calculation of the IMEP

The Indicated Mean Effective Pressure (IMEP) is a very important engine parameter, giving significant information about the quality of the cycle that transforms heat into mechanical work. For this reason, modern data acquisition systems display, on line, the cylinder pressure variation together with the corresponding IMEP. The paper presents a very simple algorithm for the calculation of IMEP, based on the correlation between IMEP and the gas pressure torque. It was found that that the IMEP may be calculated by a very simple formula involving only two harmonic components of the cylinder pressure variation. The computation of the two harmonic components is very easily performed because it does not involve the calculation of an average pressure and the cylinder volume variation. The method was experimentally validated showing differences less than 0.2% with respect to the IMEP calculated by the traditional method.
Technical Paper

Experimental Investigation of the Strains and Stresses in the Cylinder Block of a Marine Diesel Engine

The cylinder block of a high-speed marine diesel engine is a complex structure subjected to a complex loading. The design optimization of the cylinder block requires a reliable Finite Element Model (FEM), capable to predict, with a reasonable accuracy, the actual strains and stresses. The experimental investigation presented in the paper is meant to provide the necessary information for a better estimation of the boundary conditions and the validation of the FEM of the cylinder block. In order to obtain an image of the stress field in the cylinder block, a system of 10 strain gauge rosettes have been placed at significant locations on the cylinder block. The temperature at the location of the rosettes was measured with an optical pyrometer and a method has been developed to calculate this temperature using the measured strain. A fairly good agreement was obtained between the measured and the calculated temperatures during the cooling of the engine.
Technical Paper

Direct Visualization of High Pressure Diesel Spray and Engine Combustion

An experimental study was carried out to visualize the spray and combustion inside an AVL single-cylinder research diesel engine converted for optical access. The injection system was a hydraulically-amplified electronically-controlled unit injector capable of high injection pressure up to 180 MPa and injection rate shaping. The injection characteristics were carefully characterized with injection rate meter and with spray visualization in high-pressure chamber. The intake air was supplied by a compressor and heated with a 40kW electrical heater to simulate turbocharged intake condition. In addition to injection and cylinder pressure measurements, the experiment used 16-mm high-speed movie photography to directly visualize the global structures of the sprays and ignition process. The results showed that optically accessible engines provide very useful information for studying the diesel combustion conditions, which also provided a very critical test for diesel combustion models.
Technical Paper

Starting of Diesel Engines: Uncontrolled Fuel Injection Problems

Many problems can develop from the uncontrolled fuel injection during cranking and starting of diesel engines. Some of the problems are related to excessive wear as a result of the high peak pressures reached upon combustion after misfiring, the relatively low rotating speeds and the lack of formation of a lubricating oil film between the interacting surfaces. Another problem is the emission of high amounts of unburned hydrocarbons and white smoke. Experimental results are given for a single cylinder and a multicylinder diesel engine, for the instantaneous angular velocity and cylinder pressures from the starter-on point until the engine fires. The causes of misfiring during cranking are investigated. The role of the increased blow-by gases on the autoignition process at the low cranking speeds is analyzed both analytically and experimentally. The contribution of the instantaneous angular velocity at the time of injection, on the autoignition process is investigated.
Technical Paper

Transient Engine and Piston Friction During Starting

The instantaneous frictional torque (IFT) of the engine and the piston-ring assembly frictional force (PRAFF) were determined during cranking and starting of a direct injection single cylinder diesel engine. The measurements included the cylinder gas pressure, the instantaneous torque of the electric starter, the angular velocity of the crankshaft and the axial force on the connecting rod. The engine and piston friction were determined every crank angle degree for all the cycles from the time the starter was engaged to the time the engine reached the idling speed. The data was analyzed and a comparison was made between the friction in successive cycles.
Technical Paper

Transient Flow Characteristics Inside the Catalytic Converter of a Firing Gasoline Engine

An experimental study was performed, using cycle-resolved laser Doppler velocimetry (LDV) technique, to characterize the exhaust flow structure inside a catalytic converter retro-fitted to a firing four-cylinder gasoline engine over different operating conditions. A small fraction of titanium (IV) isopropoxide was dissolved in gasoline to generate titanium dioxide during combustion as seeding particles for LDV measurements. It was found that in the front plane of the catalytic monolith, the velocity is highly fluctuating due to the pulsating nature of the engine exhaust flow, which strongly depends on the engine operating conditions. Under unloaded condition, four pairs of major peaks are clearly observed in the time history of the velocity, which correspond to the main exhaust events of each individual cylinder.
Technical Paper

Noise Radiation from Axial Flow Fans

A semi-empirical formula [1] for predicting noise spectra of an engine cooling fan assembly is developed. In deriving this formulation it is assumed that sound radiation from an axial flow fan is primarily due to fluctuating forces exerted on the fan blade surface. These fluctuating forces are correlated to the total lift force exerted on the fan blade, and is approximated by pressure pulses that decay both in space and time. The radiated acoustic pressure is then expressed in terms of superposition of contributions from these pressure pulses, and the corresponding line spectrum is obtained by taking a Fourier series expansion. To simulate the broad band sounds, a normal distribution-like shape function is designed which divides the frequency into consecutive bands centered at the blade passage frequency and its harmonics. The amplitude of this shape function at the center frequency is unity but decays exponentially. The decay rate decreases with an increase in the number of bands.