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Technical Paper

The Effect of Fuel-Line Pressure Perturbation on the Spray Atomization Characteristics of Automotive Port Fuel Injectors

An experimental study was carried out to characterize the spray atomization process of automotive port fuel injectors retrofitted to a novel pressure modulation piezoelectric driver, which generates a pressure perturbation inside the fuel line. Unlike many other piezoelectric atomizers, this unit does not drive the nozzle directly. It has a small size and can be installed easily between regular port injector and fuel lines. There is no extra control difficulty with this system since the fuel injection rate and injection timing are controlled by the original fuel-metering valve. The global spray structures were characterized using the planar laser Mie scattering (PLMS) technique and the spray atomization processes were quantified using phase Doppler anemometry (PDA) technique.
Technical Paper

A Novel Concept of Power Transmission Gear Design

Conventional gear designs are characterized by the meshing teeth which have to accommodate bending loads with a high dynamic load content, together with high contact stresses under a reciprocal sliding. Accordingly, special materials with sophisticated heat treatments, and high fabrication accuracy are required for heavy-duty gears, such as being used in off-road vehicle transmissions The paper describes a novel concept for designing power transmission gears, which eliminates physical sliding between meshing profiles and separates bending and contact loading of the teeth. Geometrical sliding is accommodated by internal shear deformation in specially designed rubber-metal laminates, thus allowing materials with high bulk strength but poor contact properties (aluminum, titanium, fiber-reinforced composites, etc.) to be used for heavy-duty gears.
Technical Paper

Characterization of Internal flow and Spray of Multihole DI Gasoline Spray using X-ray Imaging and CFD

Multi-hole DI injectors are being adopted in the advanced downsized DISI ICE powertrain in the automotive industry worldwide because of their robustness and cost-performance. Although their injector design and spray resembles those of DI diesel injectors, there are many basic but distinct differences due to different injection pressure and fuel properties, the sac design, lower L/D aspect ratios in the nozzle hole, closer spray-to-spray angle and hense interactions. This paper used Phase-Contrast X ray techniques to visualize the spray near a 3-hole DI gasoline research model injector exit and compared to the visible light visualization and the internal flow predictions using with multi-dimensional multi-phase CFD simulations. The results show that strong interactions of the vortex strings, cavitation, and turbulence in and near the nozzles make the multi-phase turbulent flow very complicated and dominate the near nozzle breakup mechanisms quite unlike those of diesel injections.
Technical Paper

Interactions of Multi-hole DI Sprays with Charge Motion and their Implications to Flexible Valve-trained Engine Performance

Advanced valvetrain coupled with Direct Injection (DI) provides an opportunity to simultaneous reduction of fuel consumption and emissions. Because of their robustness and cost performance, multi-hole injectors are being adopted as gasoline DI fuel injectors. Ethanol and ethanol-gasoline blends synergistically improve the performance of a turbo-charged DI gasoline engine, especially in down-sized, down-sped and variable-valvetrain engine architecture. This paper presents Mie-scattering spray imaging results taken with an Optical Accessible Engine (OAE). OAE offers dynamic and realistic in-cylinder charge motion with direct imaging capability, and the interaction with the ethanol spray with the intake air is studied. Two types of cams which are designed for Early Intake Valve Close (EIVC) and Later Intake Valve Close (LIVC) are tested, and the effect of variable valve profile and deactivation of one of the intake valves are discussed.
Technical Paper

Experimental and Computational Analysis of Impact of Self Recirculation Casing Treatment on Turbocharger Compressor

Self recirculation casing treatment has been showed to be an effective technique to extend the flow range of the compressor. However, the mechanism of its surge extension on turbocharger compressor is less understood. Investigation and comparison of internal flow filed will help to understand its impact on the compressor performance. In present study, experimentally validated CFD analysis was employed to study the mechanism of surge extension on the turbocharger compressor. Firstly a turbocharger compressor with replaceable inserts near the shroud of the impeller inlet was designed so that the overall performance of the compressor with and without self recirculation casing treatment could be tested and compared. Two different self recirculation casing treatments had been tested: one is conventional self recirculation casing treatment and the other one has deswirl vanes inside the casing treatment passage.
Technical Paper

Near-Nozzle Structure of Diesel Sprays Affected by Internal Geometry of Injector Nozzle: Visualized by Single-Shot X-ray Imaging

By taking advantage of high-intensity and high-brilliance x-ray beams available at the Advanced Photon Source (APS), ultrafast (150 ps) propagation-based phase-enhanced imaging was developed to visualize high-pressure high-speed diesel sprays in the optically dense near-nozzle region. The sub-ns temporal and μm spatial resolution allows us to capture the morphology of the high-speed fuel sprays traveling at 500 m/s with a negligible motion blur. Both quality and quantitative information about the spray feature can be readily obtained. In the experiment, two types of single-hole nozzles have been used, one with a hydroground orifice inlet and the other with a sharp one. Within 3 mm from the nozzle, the sprays from these nozzles behave differently, ranging from laminar flow with surface instability waves to turbulent flow. The sprays are correlated with the nozzle internal geometry, which provides practical information for both nozzle design and supporting numerical simulation models.
Technical Paper

A Practical Time-Domain Approach to Controller Design and Calibration for Applications in Automotive Industry

This paper summarizes a systematic approach to control of nonlinear automotive systems exposed to fast transients. This approach is based on a combined application of hardware characterization, which inverts nonlinearities, and conventional Proportional-plus-Integral-plus-Derivative (PID) control. The approach renders the closed-loop system dynamics more transparent and simplifies the controller design and calibration for applications in automotive industry. The authors have found this approach effective in presenting and teaching PID controller design and calibration guidelines to automotive engineering audience, who at times may not have formal training in controls but need to understand the development and calibration process of simple controllers.
Technical Paper

Temperature Control of Water with Heating, Cooling and Mixing in a Process with Recycle Loop

A hot and cold water mixing process with a steam condenser and a chilled water heat exchanger is set up for an engine EGR fouling test. The test rig has water recycled in the loop of a pump, heat exchangers, a three-way mixing valve, and a test EGR unit. The target unit temperature is controlled by a heating, cooling and mixing process with individual valves regulating the flow-rate of saturated steam, chilled water and mixing ratio. The challenges in control design are the dead-time, interaction, nonlinearity and multivariable characteristics of heat exchangers, plus the flow recycle in the system. A systems method is applied to extract a simple linear model for control design. The method avoids the nonlinearity and interaction among different temperatures at inlet, outlet and flow-rate. The test data proves the effectiveness of systems analysis and modeling methodology. As a result, the first-order linear model facilitates the controller design.
Technical Paper

Ultrafast X-Ray Phase-Enhanced Microimaging for Visualizing Fuel Injection Process

Propagation-based and phase-enhanced x-ray imaging was developed as a unique metrology technique to visualize the internal structure of high-pressure fuel injection nozzles. We have visualized the microstructures inside 200-μm fuel injection nozzles in a 3-mm-thick steel housing using this novel technique. Furthermore, this new x-ray-based metrology technique has been used to directly study the highly transient needle motion in the nozzles in situ and in real-time, which is virtually impossible by any other means. The needle motion has been shown to have the most direct effect on the fuel jet structure and spray formation immediately outside of the nozzle. In addition, the spray cone-angle has been perfectly correlated with the numerically simulated fuel flow inside the nozzle due to the transient nature of the needle during the injection.
Technical Paper

High Rate Mechanical Properties of the Hybrid Iii and Cadaveric Lumbar Spines in Flexion and Extension

In a previous study by Demetropoules et al., (1998), it was shown that both cadaveric and Hybrid III lumbar spines exhibit loading rate dependency when loaded in a quasi-static mode up to a velocity of 100 mm/s. In these tests, the Hybrid III lumbar spines were generally found to have higher stiffnesses than the human lumbar spines, except in compression. This is probably due to the fact that muscle loading was not simulated when testing the human spines. Additionally, the speed previously used to test the spines was less than that typically seen in automotive crash environment. The purpose of this study was to use a high-rate testing machine to establish the flexion and extension stiffnesses of the human lumbar spine with simulated extensor muscle tone. Two Hybrid III lumbar spines were used to develop the test methodology and to obtain the response of the Hybrid III lumbar spines.
Journal Article

Large Eddy Simulation of GDI Single-Hole Flow and Near-Field Spray

The improvement of spray atomization and penetration characteristics of GDI multi-hole injector sprays is a major component of the engine combustion developments, in order to achieve the fuel economy and emissions standards. Significant R&D efforts are directed towards optimization of the nozzle designs, in order to achieve optimum multi-objective spray characteristics. The Volume-of-Fluid Large-Eddy-Simulation (VOF-LES) of the injector internal flow and spray break-up processes offers a computational capability to aid development of a fundamental knowledge of the liquid jet breakup process. It is a unique simulation method capable of simultaneous analysis of the injector nozzle internal flow and the near-field jet breakup process. Hence it provides a powerful toll to investigate the influence of nozzle design parameters on the spray geometric and atomization features and, consequently, reduces reliance on hardware trial-and-tests for multi-objective spray optimizations.
Journal Article

Experimental Investigation of the Interaction of MultipleGDI Injections using Laser Diagnostics

In present GDI engines, multiple injection strategies are often employed for engine cold start mixture formation. In the future, these strategies may also be used to control the combustion process, and to prevent misfiring or high emission levels. While the processes occurring during individual injections of GDI injectors have been investigated by a number of researchers, this paper concentrates on the interactions of multiple injection events. Even though multiple injection strategies are already applied in most GDI engines, the impact of the first injection event on the second injection event has not been analyzed in detail yet. Different optical measurement techniques are used in order to investigate the interaction of the two closely timed injection events, as well as the effect of dwell time and the in-cylinder conditions. The injector investigated is a GDI piezo injector with an outwardly opening needle.
Technical Paper

Mechanical Properties of the Cadaveric and Hybrid III Lumbar Spines

This study identified the mechanical properties of ten cadaveric lumbar spines and two Hybrid III lumbar spines. Eight tests were performed on each specimen: tension, compression, anterior shear, posterior shear, left lateral shear, flexion, extension and left lateral bending. Each test was run at a displacement rate of 100 mm/sec. The maximum displacements were selected to approximate the loading range of a 50 km/h Hybrid III dummy sled test and to be non-destructive to the specimens. Load, linear displacement and angular displacement data were collected. Bending moment was calculated from force data. Each mode of loading demonstrated consistent characteristics. The load-displacement curves of the Hybrid III lumbar spine demonstrated an initial region of high stiffness followed by a region of constant stiffness.