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Technical Paper

Diesel Engine Cold Start Combustion Instability and Control Strategy

2001-03-05
2001-01-1237
Combustion instability and white smoke emissions are serious problems during cold starting of diesel engines. In this investigation, a model has been applied to predict misfiring based on an analysis of the autoignition process. The effect of injection timing on combustion instability during the cold start transient, at different ambient temperatures is investigated, both theoretically and experimentally. Maps have been developed to show the zones where misfiring would occur. The experimental work was conducted on a direct injection heavy-duty diesel engine in a cold room. The room temperature covered a range from 21 ° C to -10 ° C. The cycle-by-cycle data analysis was made and results plotted on the developed maps. The experimental results correlated fairly well with the model prediction. Based on the analysis, a new strategy for cold starting can be developed to reduce combustion instability and white smoke emissions.
Technical Paper

Combustion Visualization of DI Diesel Spray Combustion inside a Small-Bore Cylinder under different EGR and Swirl Ratios

2001-05-07
2001-01-2005
An experimental setup using rapid compression machine to provide excellent optical access to visualize simulated high-speed small-bore direct injection diesel engine combustion processes is described. Typical combustion visualization results of diesel spray combustion under different EGR, swirl, and injection pressure and nozzle conditions are presented. Different swirl intensities are achieved using an air nozzle with variable orientations and a check valve to connect the compression chamber and the combustion chamber. Different EGR ratios are achieved by pre-injection of diesel fuel prior to the main observation sequence. Clear visualization of the high-pressure fuel injection, ignition, combustion and spray/wall/swirl interactions is obtained. The injection system is a high-pressure common-rail system with either a VCO or a mini-sac nozzle. High-speed movies up to 35,000 frame-per-second are taken using a framing drum camera to record the combustion events.
Technical Paper

Transient Cavitating Flow Simulations Inside a 2-D VCO Nozzle Using the Space-Time CE/SE Method

2001-05-07
2001-01-1983
Cavitating flows inside a two-dimensional valve covered orifice (VCO) nozzle were simulated by using the Space-Time Conservation Element and Solution Element (CE/SE) method in conjunction with a homogeneous equilibrium cavitation model. As a validation for present model, cavitation over a NACA0015 hydrofoil was predicted and compared with previous simulation results as well as experimental observations. The model was then used to investigate the effects on internal cavitating flows of different nozzle design parameters, such as the hole size, hole aspect-ratio, hydro-erosion radius, and orifice inclination. Under different conditions, cavitating flows through fuel injectors generated hydraulic flip, supercavitation, full cavitation, and cyclical cavitation phenomena, which are commonly observed in experiments.
Technical Paper

Quantifying Relationships Between the Crankshaft's Speed Variation and the Gas Pressure Torque

2001-03-05
2001-01-1007
The non-uniform character of the torque produced by a reciprocating I.C. engine is reflected in the cyclic variation of the crankshaft's speed. Because the crankshaft is an elastic structure, its response to the different harmonic components of the torque is different and changes with engine speed. The lowest harmonic components of the engine torque do not excite torsional vibrations and correlate fairly well with the corresponding harmonic orders of the crankshaft's speed. Based on a random vector model of the harmonic components of the gas-pressure torque, a statistical correlation is obtained between amplitudes and phases of the same harmonic component of the gas-pressure torque and of the crankshaft's speed. The lowest major harmonic order determines the average IMEP of the engine and the half-order detects if a cylinder is a lesser contributor to the total engine output and identifies the deficient cylinder.
Technical Paper

Modeling the Effects of EGR and Injection Pressure on Emissions in a High-Speed Direct-Injection Diesel Engine

2001-03-05
2001-01-1004
Experimental data is used in conjunction with multi-dimensional modeling in a modified version of the KIVA-3V code to characterize the emissions behavior of a high-speed, direct-injection diesel engine. Injection pressure and EGR are varied across a range of typical small-bore diesel operating conditions and the resulting soot-NOx tradeoff is analyzed. Good agreement is obtained between experimental and modeling trends; the HSDI engine shows increasing soot and decreasing NOx with higher EGR and lower injection pressure. The model also indicates that most of the NOx is formed in the region where the bulk of the initial heat release first takes place, both for zero and high EGR cases. The mechanism of NOx reduction with high EGR is shown to be primarily through a decrease in thermal NOx formation rate.
Technical Paper

An Experimental Assessment of Turbulence Production, Reynolds Stress and Length Scale (Dissipation) Modeling in a Swirl-Supported DI Diesel Engine

2003-03-03
2003-01-1072
Simultaneous measurements of the radial and the tangential components of velocity are obtained in a high-speed, direct-injection diesel engine typical of automotive applications. Results are presented for engine operation with fuel injection, but without combustion, for three different swirl ratios and four injection pressures. With the mean and fluctuating velocities, the r-θ plane shear stress and the mean flow gradients are obtained. Longitudinal and transverse length scales are also estimated via Taylor's hypothesis. The flow is shown to be sufficiently homogeneous and stationary to obtain meaningful length scale estimates. Concurrently, the flow and injection processes are simulated with KIVA-3V employing a RNG k-ε turbulence model. The measured turbulent kinetic energy k, r-θ plane mean strain rates ( 〈Srθ〉, 〈Srr〉, and 〈Sθθ〉 ), deviatoric turbulent stresses , and the r-θ plane turbulence production terms are compared directly to the simulated results.
Technical Paper

Simplified Elasto-Hydrodynamic Friction Model of the Cam-Tappet Contact

2003-03-03
2003-01-0985
The paper analyses the particularities of the lubricating conditions at the contact between the cam and a flat tappet in the valve train of an internal combustion engine and develops a method for the calculation of the friction force. The existing lubrication models show the predominance of the entraining speed and oil viscosity on the thickness of the oil film entrapped between cam and tappet, predicting a very small value (less than 0.1 μm) of the oil film thickness (OFT). The oil viscosity increases exponentially with pressure in the Hertzian contact, determining non-Newtonian behavior of the oil in the contact zone. Using the model developed by Greenwood and Tripp [11] for the contact of two rough surfaces and the Eyring model [2] for the oil it is shown that non-Newtonian behavior of the oil prevails and that the OFT plays a secondary role on the friction force.
Technical Paper

A Review of Mixture Preparation and Combustion Control Strategies for Spark-Ignited Direct-Injection Gasoline Engines

1997-02-24
970627
The current extensive revisitation of the application of gasoline direct-injection to automotive, four-stroke, spark-ignition engines has been prompted by the availability of technological capabilities that did not exist in the late 1970s, and that can now be utilized in the engine development process. The availability of new engine hardware that permits an enhanced level of computer control and dynamic optimization has alleviated many of the system limitations that were encountered in the time period from 1976 to 1984, when the capabilities of direct-injection, stratified-charge, spark-ignition engines were thoroughly researched. This paper incorporates a critical review of the current worldwide research and development activities in the gasoline direct-injection field, and provides insight into new areas of technology that are being applied to the development of both production and prototype engines.
Technical Paper

A New Experimental Technique for Friction Simulation in Automotive Piston Ring and Cylinder Liners

1998-05-04
981407
A new friction testing system has been designed and built to simulate the actual engine conditions in friction and wear test of piston-ring and cylinder liner assembly. Experimental data has been developed as Friction Coefficient / Crank Angle Degree diagrams including the effects of running speed (500 and 700 rpm) and ring normal load. Surface roughness profilocorder traces were obtained for tested samples. Mixed lubrication regime observed in the most part of the test range. New cylinder bore materials and lubricants can be screened easily and more reliable simulated engine friction data can be collected using this technique.
Technical Paper

Diesel Engine Diagnosis Based on Analysis of the Crankshaft's Speed Variation

1998-10-19
982540
The variation of the crankshaft's speed is influenced by the action of the cylinders and shall reflect the contribution of each cylinder to the total engine output. At the same time, the speed variation is influenced by the torsional stiffness of the cranks, the mass moments of inertia of the reciprocating mechanisms and the average speed and load of the engine. As the result, the variation of angular motion of the crankshaft is complex, each particular influence changing its importance as speed and load are modified. The diagnostic method presented in the paper is based on the analysis of the amplitudes and phases of the lowest harmonic orders of the measured speed and is capable to determine the average Indicated Mean Effective Pressure (IMEP), to detect nonuniformities in cylinder operation and to identify the faulty cylinder(s).
Technical Paper

In-Cylinder Air/Fuel Ratio Approximation Using Spark Gap Ionization Sensing

1998-02-23
980166
Experiments were conducted on a single cylinder engine to measure the ionization current across the spark plug electrodes as a function of key operating parameters including air/fuel ratio. A unique ignition circuit was adapted to measure the ion current as early as 300 microseconds after the initiation of spark discharge. A strong relationship between air/fuel ratio and features of the measured ion current was observed. This relationship can be exploited via relatively simple algorithms in a wide range of electronic engine control strategies. Measurements of spark plug ion current for approximating air/fuel ratio may be especially useful for use with low cost mixture control in small engine applications. Cylinder-to-cylinder mixture balancing in conjunction with a global exhaust gas oxygen sensor is another promising application of spark plug ion current measurement.
Technical Paper

Determination of the Gas-Pressure Torque of a Multicylinder Engine from Measurements of the Crankshaft's Speed Variation

1998-02-23
980164
The local variation of the crankshaft's speed in a multicylinder engine is determined by the resultant gas-pressure torque and the torsional deformation of the crankshaft. Under steady-state operation, the crankshaft's speed has a quasi-periodic variation and its harmonic components may be obtained by a Discrete Fourier Transform (DFT). Based on a lumped-mass model of the shafting, correlations are established between the harmonic components of the speed variation and the corresponding components of the engine torque. These correlations are used to calculate the gas-pressure torque or the indicated mean effective pressure (IMEP) from measurements of the crankshaft's speed.
Technical Paper

Diesel Engine Cold Starting: White Smoke

1992-02-01
920032
A method to calculate white smoke during starting was developed using a total balance of fuel injected and fuel burned. An accurate needle lift sensor with an in situ calibration was designed and used to measure cyclic fuel injection. The effects of ambient temperature, fuel type, injection timing and the number of repeated starting attempts were studied with regard to white smoke formation, cyclic fuel injection and fuel burned. It was found that the colder the ambient temperature, the less unburned fuel was emitted to the atmosphere due to the decrease in cyclic fuel injection. The more volatile the fuel, the easier it was to start the engine at low temperatures, and the less white smoke was produced. Earlier timing of fuel injection during starting resulted in an increased likelihood of engine starting and less white smoke formation.
Technical Paper

Diesel Engine Cold Starting: Combustion Instability

1992-02-01
920005
Combustion instability is investigated during the cold starting of a single cylinder, direct injection, 4-stroke-cycle, air-cooled diesel engine. The experiments covered fuels of different properties at different ambient air temperatures and injection timings. The analysis showed that the pattern of misfiring (skipping) is not random but repeatable. The engine may skip once (8-stroke-cycle operation) or twice (12-stroke-cycle operation) or more times. The engine may shift from one mode of operation to another and finally run steadily on the 4-stroke cycle. All the fuels tested produced this type of operation at different degrees. The reasons for the combustion instability were analyzed and found to be related to speed, residual gas temperature and composition, accumulated fuel and ambient air temperature.
Technical Paper

Influence of Oxygen Concentration on the Auto-Ignition and Flame Propagation Characteristics of Diesel Jets with Experimental Comparison

2017-03-28
2017-01-0842
Numerical simulations of diesel reacting jets in a simulated engine environment were carried out to study the effect of oxygen concentration on the ignition delay time and lift-off length dynamics. A recently developed mechanism, direct integration of chemistry, and well established Lagrangian-Eulerian spray model were utilized for 3-D turbulent spray combustion simulation under engine like conditions. The simulations are able to provide a time-history of chemical species including formaldehyde CH2O intermediates and hydroxide OH radicals to facilitate development of auto-ignition and lift off length numerical diagnostics. A range of important operating points including variations in the oxygen concentration, rail pressure, and injection duration were examined. The purpose of conducting the parametric studies is to investigate the consistency of the results and provide a more comprehensive analysis than a single point condition.
Technical Paper

One-Dimensional Modelling and Analysis of Thermal Barrier Coatings for Reduction of Cooling Loads in Military Vehicles

2018-04-03
2018-01-1112
There is a general interest in the reduction of cooling loads in military vehicles. To that end thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) are being studied for their potential as insulators, particularly for military engines. The effectiveness of TBCs is largely dependent on their thermal properties, however insulating effects can also be modified by applying different coating thickness. Convection from in-cylinder surfaces can also be affected by manipulation of surface structure. Although most prior studies have examined TBCs as a means of increasing efficiency, military vehicle design is primarily concerned with the reduction of cylinder heat transfer to allow downsizing of cooling systems. A 1-D transient conjugate heat transfer model was developed to provide insight into the effects of different TBC designs and material selection on cooling loads. Results identify low thermal conductivity and low thermal capacitance as key parameters in achieving optimal heat loss reduction.
Technical Paper

Study on the Key Preload Performance Parameters of an Active Reversible Preload Seatbelt (ARPS)

2018-04-03
2018-01-1175
In order to provide an improved countermeasure for occupant protection, a new type of active reversible preload seatbelt (ARPS) is presented in this paper. The ARPS is capable of protecting occupants by reducing injuries during frontal collisions. ARPS retracts seatbelt webbing by activating an electric motor attached to the seatbelt retractor. FCW (Forward Collision Warning) and LDW (Lane Departure Warning) provide signals as a trigger to activate the electric motor to retract the seatbelt webbing, thus making the occupant restraint system work more effectively in a crash. It also helps reduce occupant’s forward movement during impact process via braking. Four important factors such as preload force, preload velocity and the length and timing of webbing retraction play influential roles in performance of the ARPS. This paper focuses on studying preload performance of ARPS under various test conditions to investigate effects of the aforementioned factors.
Technical Paper

Fracture Behavior of the Skull Frontal Bone Against Cylindrical Surfaces

1970-02-01
700909
A test program has been conducted to determine the fracture behavior of the human frontal bone against two different rigid cylindrical surfaces; one surface was of 1 in. radius and one was of 5/16 in. radius; both were 6½ in. long. The purpose of this research program was to provide human tolerance data which would: 1. Assist in the design of structures likely to be impacted by the human head. 2. Extend the calibration range of frangible headforms. Twelve cadavers were tested in this program; seven against the 1 in. radius cylinder and five against the 5/16 in. radius cylinder. The test arrangement employed a guided drop of the test surface against a stationary head which was free to rebound. Drop heights were increased progressively until borderline fractures were obtained. The large radius shape consistently yielded linear fractures indicating that it is effectively a blunt surface. Fracture loads ranged 950-1650 lb.
Technical Paper

Characterization and Simulation of a Unit Injector

1975-02-01
750773
The characteristics of the diesel engine unit injector were studied both theoretically and experimentally. The transient fuel pressure in the unit injector was indirectly measured by using strain gauges placed in different locations on the drive train, between the cam and plunger. The events which take place during the injection process were analyzed and the effects of several design and operating variables on the different injection parameters were determined. Computer simulation showed a fairly good agreement between computed and experimental results.
Technical Paper

Correlation between Physical Properties and Autoignition Parameters of Alternate Fuels

1985-02-01
850266
The correlations between the physical properties and autoignition parameters of several alternate fuels have been examined. The fuels are DF-2 and its blends with petroleum derived fuels, coal derived fuels, shale derived fuels, high aromatic naphtha sun-flower oils, methanol and ethanol. A total of eighteen existing correlations are discussed. An emphasis is made on the suitability of each of the correlations for the development of electronic controls for diesel engines when run on alternate fuels. A new correlation has been developed between the cetane number of the fuels and its kinematic viscosity and specific gravity.
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