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Journal Article

The Combined Effect of HCHO and C2H4 Addition on Combustion in an Optically Accessible Diesel Engine Fueled with JP-8

2011-04-12
2011-01-1392
Misfiring or partial combustion during diesel engine operation results in the production of partial oxidation products such as ethylene (C₂H₄), carbon monoxide and aldehydes, in particular formaldehyde (HCHO). These compounds remain in the cylinder as residual gases to participate in the following engine cycle. Carbon monoxide and formaldehyde have been shown to exhibit a dual nature, retarding ignition in one temperature regime, yet decreasing ignition delay periods of hydrocarbon mixtures as temperatures exceed 1000°K. Largely unknown is the synergistic effects of such species. In this work, varying amounts of C₂H₄ and HCHO are added to the intake air of a naturally aspirated optical diesel engine and their combined effect on autoignition and subsequent combustion is examined. To observe the effect of these dopants on the low-temperature heat release (LTHR), ultraviolet chemiluminescent images are recorded using intensified CCD cameras.
Technical Paper

Estimation of Main Combustion Parameters from the Measured Instantaneous Crankshaft Speed

2013-04-08
2013-01-0326
The increased interest for using alternative fuels in modern diesel engines requires better combustion control to achieve safe and efficient operation with fuels characterized by different physical and chemical properties. Knowing the ignition delay and the cylinder peak pressure will allow adapting the injection strategy, mainly injection timing to maintain good engine efficiency when operating with different alternative fuels. The use of the measured instantaneous crankshaft speed to estimate peak cylinder pressure and ignition delay is very attractive because speed is already a parameter in the ECU of the engine. Based on models using powertrain dynamics, the paper presents the development of several techniques using the measured speed to estimate the main combustion parameters for single cylinder and four cylinder diesel engines.
Technical Paper

Direct Visualization of Combustion in an E85-Fueled DISI Engine under Various Operation Conditions

2013-04-08
2013-01-1129
Gasoline-direct-injection (GDI) engines have been adopted increasingly by the automotive industry in the recent years due to their performance, effects on the environment, and customers' demand on advanced technology. However, the knowledge of detailed combustion process in such engines is still not thoroughly analyzed and understood. With optically accessible engines (OAE) and advanced measuring techniques, such as high-speed digital imaging, the in-cylinder combustion process is made available directly to researchers. The present study primarily focuses on the effects of different parameters of engine control on the combustion process, such as fuel types, valve deactivation, ignition timing, spark energy, injection timing, air-fuel ratio, and exhaust gas recirculation. Three engine heads of a 2.0L GDI engine are used with modification to acquire different optical access.
Technical Paper

Performance of JP-8 Unified Fuel in a Small Bore Indirect Injection Diesel Engine for APU Applications

2012-04-16
2012-01-1199
Recent legislation entitled “The Single Fuel Forward Policy” mandates that all vehicles deployed by the US military be operable with aviation fuel (JP-8). Therefore, the authors are conducting an investigation into the influence of JP-8 on a diesel engine's performance. The injection, combustion, and performance of JP-8, 20-50% by weight in ULSD (diesel no.2) mixtures (J20-J50) produced at room temperature, were investigated in a small indirect injection, high compression ratio (24.5), 77mm separate combustion chamber diesel engine. The effectiveness of JP8 for application in an auxiliary power unit (APU) at continuous operation (100% load) of 4.78bar bmep/2400rpm was investigated. The blends had an ignition delay of approximately 1.02ms that increased slightly in relation to the amount of JP-8 introduced. J50 and diesel no.2 exhibited similar characteristics of heat release, the premixed phase being combined with the diffusion combustion.
Journal Article

Performance of an IDI Engine Fueled with Fatty Acid Methyl Esters Formulated from Cotton Seeds Oils

2015-04-14
2015-01-0806
This study evaluates the performance of an indirect injection (IDI) diesel engine fueled with cotton seed biodiesel while assessing the engine's multi-fuel capability. Millions of tons of cotton seeds are available in the south of the US every year and approximately 10% of oil contained in the seeds can be extracted and transesterified. An investigation of combustion, emissions, and efficiency was performed using mass ratios of 20-50% cotton seed biodiesel (CS20 and CS50) in ultra-low sulfur diesel #2 (ULSD#2). Each investigation was run at 2400 rpm with loads of 4.2 - 6.3 IMEP and compared to the reference fuel ULDS#2. The ignition delay ranged in a narrow interval of 0.8-0.97ms across the blends and the heat release rate showed comparable values and trends for all fuel blends. The maximum volume averaged cylinder temperature increased by approximately 100K with each increase in 1 bar IMEP load but the maximum remained constants across the blends.
Technical Paper

Ion Current in a Spark Ignition Engine using Negative Polarity on Center Electrode

2007-04-16
2007-01-0646
Most of the previous research on flame ionization in spark ignition engines applied positive polarity on the spark plug center electrode, referred to as positively biased probe. In this paper an investigation is made to determine the characteristics of the ion current signal with negatively biased probe. The factors that contribute to the second ion current peak, reported to be missing with negative polarity, are investigated. Experiments were conducted on a research single-cylinder, spark ignition engine and the negative polarity is applied by a SmartFire Plasma Ignition system. The effect of different spark plug designs and engine operating parameters on the amplitude and timing of each of the two ion current peaks is determined. The results indicated that, with negative polarity, the cathode area is one of the main factors that contribute to the amplitude of the ion current signal, particularly the second peak.
Technical Paper

Engine Friction Model for Transient Operation of Turbocharged, Common Rail Diesel Engines

2007-04-16
2007-01-1460
The simulation of I.C. Engines operation, especially during transients, requires a fairly accurate estimation of the internal mechanical losses of the engine. The paper presents generic friction models for the main friction components of the engine (piston-ring-liner assembly, bearings and valve train), considering geometry of the engine parts and peculiarities of the corresponding lubrication processes. Separate models for the mechanical losses introduced by the injection system, oil and water pumps are also developed. All models are implemented as SIMULINK modules in a complex engine simulation code developed in SIMULINK and capable to simulate both steady state and transient operating conditions. Validation is achieved by comparison with measurements made on a four cylinder, common rail diesel engine, on a test bench capable to run controlled transients.
Journal Article

Impact of A/F Ratio on Ion Current Features Using Spark Plug with Negative Polarity

2008-04-14
2008-01-1005
The increasing interest and requirement for improved electronic engine control during the last few decades, has led to the implementation of several different sensor technologies. The process of utilizing the spark plug as a combustion probe to monitor the different combustion related parameters such as knock, misfire, Ignition timing, and air-fuel ratio have been the subject of research for some time now. The air-fuel ratio is one of the most important engine operating parameters that has an impact on the combustion process, engine-out emissions, fuel economy, indicated mean effective pressure and exhaust gas composition and temperature. Furthermore, air-fuel ratio affects the ion produced during flame kernel initiation and post flame propagation. In this paper, an investigation is made to determine the effect of air-fuel ratio on ion current, using gasoline and methane under different spark plug designs and engine operating conditions.
Technical Paper

Advanced Low Temperature Combustion (ALTC): Diesel Engine Performance, Fuel Economy and Emissions

2008-04-14
2008-01-0652
The objective of this work is to develop a strategy to reduce the penalties in the diesel engine performance, fuel economy and HC and CO emissions, associated with the operation in the low temperature combustion regime. Experiments were conducted on a research high speed, single cylinder, 4-valve, small-bore direct injection diesel engine equipped with a common rail injection system under simulated turbocharged conditions, at IMEP = 3 bar and engine speed = 1500 rpm. EGR rates were varied over a wide range to cover engine operation from the conventional to the LTC regime, up to the misfiring point. The injection pressure was varied from 600 bar to 1200 bar. Injection timing was adjusted to cover three different LPPCs (Location of the Peak rate of heat release due to the Premixed Combustion fraction) at 10.5° aTDC, 5 aTDC and 2 aTDC. The swirl ratio was varied from 1.44 to 7.12. Four steps are taken to move from LTC to ALTC.
Technical Paper

Effect of Biodiesel (B-20) on Performance and Emissions in a Single Cylinder HSDI Diesel Engine

2008-04-14
2008-01-1401
The focus of this study is to determine the effect of using B-20 (a blend of 20% soybean methyl ester biodiesel and 80% ultra low sulfur diesel fuel) on the combustion process, performance and exhaust emissions in a High Speed Direct Injection (HSDI) diesel engine equipped with a common rail injection system. The engine was operated under simulated turbocharged conditions with 3-bar indicated mean effective pressure and 1500 rpm engine speed. The experiments covered a wide range of injection pressures and EGR rates. The rate of heat release trace has been analyzed in details to determine the effect of the properties of biodiesel on auto ignition and combustion processes and their impact on engine out emissions. The results and the conclusions are supported by a statistical analysis of data that provides a quantitative significance of the effects of the two fuels on engine out emissions.
Technical Paper

Reciprocating Engine Piston Secondary Motion - Literature Review

2008-04-14
2008-01-1045
The piston secondary motion is an important phenomenon in internal combustion (IC) engine. It occurs due to the piston transverse and rotational motion during piston reciprocating motion. The piston secondary motion results in engine friction and engine noise. There has been lot of research activities going on in piston secondary motion using both analytical models and experimental studies. These studies are aimed at reducing the engine friction as well as the noise generated due to piston secondary motion. The aim of this paper is to compile the research actives carried out on the piston secondary motion and discuss the possible research opportunities for reducing the IC engine piston secondary motion.
Technical Paper

Numerical Study of Ultra Low Solidity Airfoil Diffuser in an Automotive Turbocharger Compressor

2009-04-20
2009-01-1470
For the application of advanced clean combustion technologies, such as diesel HCCI/LTC, a compressor with high efficiency over a broad operation range is required to supply a high amount of EGR with minimum pumping loss. A compressor with high pitch of vaneless diffuser would substantially improve the flow range of the compressor, but it is at the cost of compressor efficiency, especially at low mass flow area where most of the city driving cycles resides. In present study, an ultra low solidity compressor vane diffuser was numerically investigated. It is well known that the flow leaving the impeller is highly distorted, unsteady and turbulent, especially at relative low mass flow rate and near the shroud side of the compressor. A conventional vaned diffuser with high stagger angle could help to improve the performance of the compressor at low end. However, adding diffuser vane to a compressor typically restricts the flow range at high end.
Technical Paper

Diesel Engine Diagnosis Based on Analysis of the Crankshaft's Speed Variation

1998-10-19
982540
The variation of the crankshaft's speed is influenced by the action of the cylinders and shall reflect the contribution of each cylinder to the total engine output. At the same time, the speed variation is influenced by the torsional stiffness of the cranks, the mass moments of inertia of the reciprocating mechanisms and the average speed and load of the engine. As the result, the variation of angular motion of the crankshaft is complex, each particular influence changing its importance as speed and load are modified. The diagnostic method presented in the paper is based on the analysis of the amplitudes and phases of the lowest harmonic orders of the measured speed and is capable to determine the average Indicated Mean Effective Pressure (IMEP), to detect nonuniformities in cylinder operation and to identify the faulty cylinder(s).
Technical Paper

Spectral Analysis and Chemiluminescence Imaging of Hydrogen Addition to HSDI Diesel Combustion Under Conventional and Low-Temperature Conditions

2004-10-25
2004-01-2919
Late-injection low-temperature diesel combustion is found to further reduce NOx and soot simultaneously. The combustion phenomena and detail chemical kinetics are studied with high speed spray/combustion images and time-resolved spectroscopy analysis in a rapid compression machine (RCM) with a small bowl combustion chamber. High swirl and high EGR condition can be achieved in the RCM; variable injection pressure and injection timing is supplied by the high-pressure common-rail fuel injection system. Effect of small amount of premix hydrogen gas on diesel combustion is also studied in the RCM. A hydrogen injector is located in the upstream of air inlet for delivery small amount and premixed hydrogen gas into cylinder just before the compression stroke. The ignition delay is studied both from the pressure curves and the chemiluminescence images.
Technical Paper

Effects of Injection Timings and Intake Port Flow Control on the In-Cylinder Wetted Fuel Footprints during PFI Engine Startup Process

2005-05-11
2005-01-2082
Wall-wetting due to liquid fuel film motion and fuel droplet impingement on combustion chamber walls is a major source of unburned hydrocarbons (UBHC), and is a concern for oil dilution in PFI engines. An experimental study was carried out to investigate the effects of injection timing, a charge motion control device, and the matching of injector with port geometry, on the “footprints” of liquid fuel inside the combustion chamber during the PFI engine starting process. Using a gasoline-soluble dye and filter paper deployed on the cylinder liner and piston top land surfaces to capture the liquid fuel footprints, the effects of the mixture formation processes on the wetted footprints can be qualitatively and quantitatively examined by comparing the wetted footprint locations and their color intensities. Real-time filming of the development of wetted footprints using a high-speed camera can also show the time history of the fuel wetting process inside an optically accessible engine.
Technical Paper

Determination of the Gas-Pressure Torque of a Multicylinder Engine from Measurements of the Crankshaft's Speed Variation

1998-02-23
980164
The local variation of the crankshaft's speed in a multicylinder engine is determined by the resultant gas-pressure torque and the torsional deformation of the crankshaft. Under steady-state operation, the crankshaft's speed has a quasi-periodic variation and its harmonic components may be obtained by a Discrete Fourier Transform (DFT). Based on a lumped-mass model of the shafting, correlations are established between the harmonic components of the speed variation and the corresponding components of the engine torque. These correlations are used to calculate the gas-pressure torque or the indicated mean effective pressure (IMEP) from measurements of the crankshaft's speed.
Technical Paper

Simplified Elasto-Hydrodynamic Friction Model of the Cam-Tappet Contact

2003-03-03
2003-01-0985
The paper analyses the particularities of the lubricating conditions at the contact between the cam and a flat tappet in the valve train of an internal combustion engine and develops a method for the calculation of the friction force. The existing lubrication models show the predominance of the entraining speed and oil viscosity on the thickness of the oil film entrapped between cam and tappet, predicting a very small value (less than 0.1 μm) of the oil film thickness (OFT). The oil viscosity increases exponentially with pressure in the Hertzian contact, determining non-Newtonian behavior of the oil in the contact zone. Using the model developed by Greenwood and Tripp [11] for the contact of two rough surfaces and the Eyring model [2] for the oil it is shown that non-Newtonian behavior of the oil prevails and that the OFT plays a secondary role on the friction force.
Technical Paper

Simulation of Diesel Engines Cold-Start

2003-03-03
2003-01-0080
Diesel engine cold-start problems include long cranking periods, hesitation and white smoke emissions. A better understanding of these problems is essential to improve diesel engine cold-start. In this study computer simulation model is developed for the steady state and transient cold starting processes in a single-cylinder naturally aspirated direct injection diesel engine. The model is verified experimentally and utilized to determine the key parameters that affect the cranking period and combustion instability after the engine starts. The behavior of the fuel spray before and after it impinges on the combustion chamber walls was analyzed in each cycle during the cold-start operation. The analysis indicated that the accumulated fuel in combustion chamber has a major impact on engine cold starting through increasing engine compression pressure and temperature and increasing fuel vapor concentration in the combustion chamber during the ignition delay period.
Technical Paper

New Integrated “O.P.E.R.A.S.” Strategies for Low Emissions in HSDI Diesel Engines

2003-03-03
2003-01-0261
Integrated control strategies for the O.P.E.R.A.S. (Optimization of injection Pressure, EGR ratio, injection Retard or Advance and Swirl ratio) are demonstrated. The strategies are based on an investigation of combustion and emissions in a small bore, high speed, direct injection diesel engine. The engine is equipped with a common rail injection system and is tested under simulated turbocharged engine conditions at two loads and speeds that represent two key operating points in a medium size HEV vehicle. A new phenomenological model is developed for the fuel distribution in the combustion chamber and the fractions that are injected prior to the development of the flame, injected in the flame or deposited on the walls. The investigation covered the effect of the different operating parameters on the fuel distribution, combustion and engine-out emissions.
Technical Paper

A Simple Linear Approach for Transient Fuel Control

2003-03-03
2003-01-0360
Significant A/F ratio excursion may occur during some engine transient operations, especially for transient periods of throttle tip in or tip out. A/F ratio excursion results in excessive emissions, extra fuel consumption, driveability deterioration and three-way-catalyst (TWC) efficiency drop. Simple two-parameter (X, τ) wall wetting models have traditionally been used to describe this transient A/F ratio excursion phenomenon. The transient fuel control techniques are utilized for this model to be applicable across vehicles, engines, fuel types and ambient conditions, so as to compensate for the A/F ratio excursion with the extra compensation fuel. More complicated model structures must be further expanded and model dependence on various environment conditions must be established to achieve a precise model. In this paper, a simple linear approach is proposed for transient fuel control, using least squares estimation.
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