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Technical Paper

Institute for Manufacturing Research, Wayne State University

1998-05-12
981345
The purpose of the Institute for Manufacturing Research (IMR) is to enhance Wayne State University's existing technological strength in the areas of manufacturing research which have demonstrated potential benefits for the State's economy. IMR's faculty conduct basic and applied research in selected areas of manufacturing science. The research programs within the Institute are broadly interdisciplinary and industrially interactive, and are organized around the following areas: materials development, modification, and nondestructive evaluation; software technology for manufacturing and engineering; and product reliability and machine tool research. Faculty from eight departments within the Colleges of Science and Engineering participate in IMR.
Technical Paper

Effect of Load and Other Parameters on Instantaneous Friction Torque in Reciprocating Engines

1991-02-01
910752
The effect of many operating parameters on the instantaneous frictional (IFT) torque was determined experimentally in a single cylinder diesel engine. The method used was the (P - ω)method developed earlier at Wayne State University. The operating parameters were load, lubricating oil grade, oil, temperature and engine speed. Also IFT was determined under simulated motoring conditions, commonly used in engine friction measurements. The results showed that the motoring frictional torque does not represent that under firing conditions even under no load. The error reached 31.4% at full load. The integrated frictional torque over the whole cycle and the average frictional torque were determined. A comparison of the average frictional torque under load was compared with the average motoring torque.
Technical Paper

Full-Scale Experimental Simulation of Pedestrian-Vehicle Impacts

1976-02-01
760813
A series of 10 full-scale experimental simulations of pedestrian-vehicle impact was carried out using cadavers and a 95th percentile anthropomorphic dummy. The test subjects were impacted laterally and frontally at 24, 32 and 40 km/h (15, 20 and 24 mph). Each subject was extensively instrumented with miniature accelerometers, up to a maximum of 53 transducers. The nine-accelerometer scheme was used to measure angular acceleration of body segments from which it was possible to compute the head injury criterion (HIC) for cadaver head impact. A full-size Chevrolet was used as the impacting vehicle. The impact event was three-dimensional in nature during which the body segments executed complex motions. Dummy impacts were more repeatable than cadaver impacts but the response of these test subjects were quite different. The HIC was higher for head-hood impact than for head-ground impact in two of the cases analyzed.
Technical Paper

Innovative Graduate Program in Mechatronics Engineering to Meet the Needs of the Automotive Industry

2010-10-19
2010-01-2304
A new inter-disciplinary degree program has been developed at Lawrence Technological University: the Master of Science in Mechatronic Systems Engineering Degree (MS/MSE). It is one of a few MS-programs in mechatronics in the U.S.A. today. This inter-disciplinary program reflects the main areas of ground vehicle mechatronic systems and robotics. This paper presents areas of scientific and technological principles which the Mechanical Engineering, Electrical and Computer Engineering, and Math and Computer Science Departments bring to Mechatronic Systems Engineering and the new degree program. New foundations that make the basis for the program are discussed. One of the biggest challenges was developing foundations for mechanical engineering in mechatronic systems design and teaching them to engineers who have different professional backgrounds. The authors first developed new approaches and principles to designing mechanical subsystems as components of mechatronic systems.
Technical Paper

Parallel-Through-The-Road Plug-In Hybrid Vehicle Modeling and Simulation by Wayne State University for EcoCAR2

2013-04-08
2013-01-0541
The Wayne State University (WSU) EcoCAR2 student team designed, modeled, Model-In-the-Loop (MIL) tested, Software-In-the-Loop (SIL) simulation tested, and Hardware-In-the-Loop (HIL) simulation tested the team's conversion design for taking a 2013 Chevrolet Malibu and converting it into a Parallel-Through-The-Road (PTTR) plug-in hybrid. The 2013 Malibu is a conventional Front Wheel Drive (FWD) vehicle and the team's conversion design keeps the conventional FWD and adds a Rear Wheel Drive (RWD) powertrain consisting of an electric motor, a single speed reduction gearbox and a differential to drive the rear wheels -where none of these previously existed on the rear wheels. The RWD addition creates the PTTR hybrid powertrain architecture of two driven axles where the mechanical torque path connection between the two powertrains is through the road, rather than a mechanical torque path through gears, chains, or shafts.
Technical Paper

Equivalent Drive Cycle Analysis, Simulation, and Testing - Wayne State University's On-Road Route for EcoCAR2

2013-04-08
2013-01-0549
The Wayne State University (WSU) EcoCAR2 student team is participating in a design competition for the conversion of a 2013 Chevrolet Malibu into a plug-in hybrid. The team created a repeatable on-road test drive route using local public roads near the university that would be of similar velocity ranges contained in the EcoCAR2 4-Cycle Drive Schedule - a weighted combination of four different EPA-based drive cycles (US06 split into city and highway portions, all of the HWFET, first 505 seconds portion of UDDS). The primary purpose of the team's local on-road route was to be suitable for testing the team's added hybrid components and control strategy for minimizing petroleum consumption and tail pipe emissions. Comparison analysis of velocities was performed between seven local routes and the EcoCAR2 4-Cycle Drive Schedule. Three of the seven local routes had acceptable equivalence for velocity (R₂ ≻ 0.80) and the team selected one of them to be the on-road test drive route.
Technical Paper

A Distributed Engineering Computer Aided Learning System

2012-04-16
2012-01-0089
In this paper, we proposed a distributed Engineering Computer Aided Learning System. Instead of attending engineering teaching sessions, engineering students are able to interact with the software to gain the same amount of teaching materials. Besides, they will interact with other engineering students from other Engineering schools. The proposed software has the ability to examine the student step by step to reach certain goals. The training and the examination will be different based on the student level and his learning process. Using this system the role of excellent professor can be achieved. The software will have two sessions, i.e. test session and learning session. The software provides the capability of knowledge sharing between multi schools and different educational systems that can provide the students with a large set of training materials. The system was built using JAVA programming language.
Technical Paper

Developing Modeling and Simulation Tools in Class to Prepare Engineering Students for the Automotive Industry

2014-04-01
2014-01-1914
The Wayne State University EcoCAR2 team provided its members with Modeling and Simulation training course for the second summer of the competition. EcoCAR2 is a three-year Advanced Vehicle Technology Competition (AVTC) sponsored by General Motors and the Department of Energy. The course lasted three months and included 45 hours of formal lectures and class hands-on work and an estimated one hundred and fifty hours in home assignments that directly contributed to the team's deliverables. The course described here is unique. The design and class examples were extracted from an in-house complete vehicle simulation and control code to ensure hands-on, interactive training based on real-world problems. The course investigated the physics behind every major powertrain component of a hybrid electric vehicle and the different ways to model the components into a full vehicle simulation.
Technical Paper

Study of Muscle Activation of Driver’s Lower Extremity at the Collision Moment

2016-04-05
2016-01-1487
At the collision moment, a driver’s lower extremity will be in different foot position, which leads to the different posture of the lower extremity with various muscle activations. These will affect the driver’s injury during collision, so it is necessary to investigate further. A simulated collision scene was constructed, and 20 participants (10 male and 10 female) were recruited for the test in a driving simulator. The braking posture and muscle activation of eight major muscles of driver’s lower extremity (both legs) were measured. The muscle activations in different postures were then analyzed. At the collision moment, the right leg was possible to be on the brake (male, 40%; female, 45%), in the air (male, 27.5%; female, 37.5%) or even on the accelerator (male, 25%; female, 12.5%). The left leg was on the floor all along.
Technical Paper

Offline Electro-Hydraulic Clutch Bench Testing Alternatives for a Pre-Transmission Parallel Hybrid Powertrain

2016-10-17
2016-01-2225
This paper details the development of a test-bench simulation to characterize the behavior of an electro-hydraulic actuated dry clutch used in a pre-transmission parallel hybrid powertrain architecture of Wayne State University EcoCAR 3. Engage and disengage systems play a crucial role in a pre-transmission parallel hybrid architecture. The most common device used to meet the purpose of physically connecting internal combustion engine and electric powertrains is a dry clutch. Its own characteristics and capabilities allow its usage for this application. The transition between the pure electric and hybrid modes is dictated by the main control strategy. Therefore, the engaging system will be widely used when switching from charge depleting to charge sustaining mode, and vice versa. In addition, when torque is required from both sources for higher performance, the clutch will be responsible for mechanically connecting both torque sources.
Technical Paper

Control of Robots Using Discrete Event System Theory

2018-04-03
2018-01-1391
In this paper, we present a project being conducted at Yalong Educational Equipment Company on control of educational robots using discrete event system theory. An educational robot is a programmable robot to be used by students for training and learning. To model a robot, we divide the robot into nine physical modules. Each module is modeled as an automaton. Parallel composition is used to obtain the entire model. The robot can be programmed to perform sequences of basic tasks. We investigate six basic tasks and use supervisors to control and achieve the tasks. Desired languages are obtained for all tasks and supervisory control theory is used to synthesize supervisors. To reduce computational complexity, modular/coordinated supervisors are used
Journal Article

A Framework for Collaborative Robot (CoBot) Integration in Advanced Manufacturing Systems

2016-04-05
2016-01-0337
Contemporary manufacturing systems are still evolving. The system elements, layouts, and integration methods are changing continuously, and ‘collaborative robots’ (CoBots) are now being considered as practical industrial solutions. CoBots, unlike traditional CoBots, are safe and flexible enough to work with humans. Although CoBots have the potential to become standard in production systems, there is no strong foundation for systems design and development. The focus of this research is to provide a foundation and four tier framework to facilitate the design, development and integration of CoBots. The framework consists of the system level, work-cell level, machine level, and worker level. Sixty-five percent of traditional robots are installed in the automobile industry and it takes 200 hours to program (and reprogram) them.
Journal Article

The Dimensional Model of Driver Demand: Visual-Manual Tasks

2016-04-05
2016-01-1423
Many metrics have been used in an attempt to predict the effects of secondary tasks on driving behavior. Such metrics often give rise to seemingly paradoxical results, with one metric suggesting increased demand and another metric suggesting decreased demand for the same task. For example, for some tasks, drivers maintain their lane well yet detect events relatively poorly. For other tasks, drivers maintain their lane relatively poorly yet detect events relatively well. These seeming paradoxes are not time-accuracy trade-offs or experimental artifacts, because for other tasks, drivers do both well. The paradoxes are resolved if driver demand is modeled in two orthogonal dimensions rather than a single “driver workload” dimension. Principal components analysis (PCA) was applied to the published data from four simulator, track, and open road studies of visual-manual secondary task effects on driving.
Journal Article

Iterative Learning Control for a Fully Flexible Valve Actuation in a Test Cell

2012-04-16
2012-01-0162
An iterative learning control (ILC) algorithm has been developed for a test cell electro-hydraulic, fully flexible valve actuation system to track valve lift profile under steady-state and transient operation. A dynamic model of the plant was obtained from experimental data to design and verify the ILC algorithm. The ILC is implemented in a prototype controller. The learned control input for two different lift profiles can be used for engine transient tests. Simulation and bench test are conducted to verify the effectiveness and robustness of this approach. The simple structure of the ILC in implementation and low cost in computation are other crucial factors to recommend the ILC. It does not totally depend on the system model during the design procedure. Therefore, it has relatively higher robustness to perturbation and modeling errors than other control methods for repetitive tasks.
Journal Article

Development of the Enhanced Peripheral Detection Task: A Surrogate Test for Driver Distraction

2012-04-16
2012-01-0965
Up to now, there is no standard methodology that addresses how driver distraction is affected by perceptual demand and working memory demand - aside from visual allocation. In 2009, the Peripheral Detection Task (PDT) became a NHTSA recommended measure for driver distraction [1]. Then the PDT task was renamed as the Detection Response Task (DRT) because the International Standards Organization (ISO) has identified this task as a potential method for assessing selective attention in detection of visual, auditory, tactile and haptic events while driving. The DRT is also under consideration for adoption as an ISO standard surrogate test for driver performance for new telematics designs. The Wayne State University (WSU) driver imaging group [2, 3] improved the PDT and created the Enhanced Peripheral Detection Task I (EPDT-I) [4]. The EPDT-I is composed of a simple visual event detection task and a video of a real-world driving scene.
Journal Article

An Innovative Modeling Approach to Thermal Management using Variable Fidelity Flow Network Models Imbedded in a 3D Analysis

2011-04-12
2011-01-1048
Speed and accuracy are the critical needs in software for the modeling and simulation of vehicle cooling systems. Currently, there are two approaches used in commercially available thermal analysis software packages: 1) detailed modeling using complex and sophisticated three-dimensional (3D) heat transfer and computational fluid dynamics, and 2) rough modeling using one-dimensional (1D) simplistic network solvers (flow and thermal) for quick prediction of flow and thermal fields. The first approach offers accuracy at the cost of speed, while the second approach provides the simulation speed, sacrificing accuracy and can possibly lead to oversimplification. Therefore, the analyst is often forced to make a choice between the two approaches, or find a way to link or couple the two methods. The linking between one-dimensional and three-dimensional models using separate software packages has been attempted and successfully accomplished for a number of years.
Technical Paper

On-Road and Chassis Dynamometer Evaluation of a Pre-Transmission Parallel PHEV

2019-04-02
2019-01-0365
The paper details the testing activities performed during the Year 4 of the EcoCAR 3 competition by the Wayne State University team. The paper presents the objectives of each road and chassis dynamometer test, and the setup accomplished for the different vehicle testing platforms. The results obtained from each test are presented and discussed along with the impact of the results on the refinement of the operational control strategies for the vehicle hybrid modes . The EcoCAR 3 competition challenges sixteen North American universities to re-engineer a 2016 Chevrolet Camaro to reduce its environmental impact without compromising its performance and consumer acceptability. The team is in the final stages of the fourth year of the competition, which, as the “refinement year”, focuses on the optimization of the control strategies designed within the Hybrid Supervisory Controller unit to achieve a 99% buyoff vehicle which incorporates energy saving features and performance.
Technical Paper

Investigation of the Kinematics and Kinetics of Whiplash

1967-02-01
670919
The kinematics of rear-end collisions based on published acceleration pulses of actual car-to-car collisions (10 and 23 mph) were reproduced on a crash simulator using anthropomorphic dummies, human cadavers, and a volunteer. Comparison of the responses of subjects without head support were based on the reactions developed at the base of the skull (occipital condyles). The cadavers gave responses which were representative of persons unaware of an impending collision. The responses of both dummies used were not comparable with those of the cadavers or volunteer, or to each other. An index based on voluntary human tolerance limits to statically applied head loads was developed and used to determine the severity of the simulations for the unsupported head cases. Results indicated that head torque rather than neck shear or axial forces is the major factor in producing neck injury.
Technical Paper

Determining dynamic vibro-acoustic characteristics and structural damping of an elastic monolithic panel

2019-06-05
2019-01-1538
Antonio Figueroa Shiloh Industries 47632 Halyard Drive Plymouth, MI 48170 Lingguang Chen and Sean F. Wu Department of Mechanical Engineering Wayne State University Detroit, MI 48202 Abstract Evaluations of the dynamic and acoustic responses of panels, partitions, and walls are of concern across many industries, from building home appliances, planning meeting rooms, to designing airplanes and passenger cars. Over the past few decades, search efforts for developing new methodologies and technologies to enable NVH engineers to acquire and correlate dynamically the relationship between input excitations and vibro-acoustic responses of arbitrary-shaped panels has grown exponentially. The application of a particular methodology or technology to the evaluation of a specific structure depends intimately on the goals and objectives of the NVH engineers and industries.
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