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Technical Paper

Visualization and Analysis of the Impingement Processes of a Narrow-Cone DI Gasoline Spray

The direct injection spray-wall interactions were investigated experimentally using high-speed laser-sheet imaging, shadowgraphy, wetted footprints and phase Doppler interferometry techniques. A narrow-cone high-pressure swirl injector is used to inject iso-octane fuel onto a plate, at three different impact angles inside a pressurized chamber. Heated air and plate conditions were compared with unheated cases. Injection interval was also varied in the heated case to compare dry- and wet- wall impingement behaviors. High-speed macroscopic Mie-scattering images showed that presence of wall and air temperature has only minor effect on the bulk spray structure and penetration speed for the narrow-cone injector tested. The overall bulk motions of the spray plume and its spatial position at a given time are basically unaffected until a few millimeters before impacting the wall.
Technical Paper

An Experimental Investigation of Spray Transfer Processes in an Electrostatic Rotating Bell Applicator

A better understanding is needed of the electrostatic rotating bell (ESRB) application of metallic basecoat paint to automobile exteriors in order to exploit their high transfer efficiency without compromising the coating quality. This paper presents the initial results from experimental investigation of sprays from an ESRB which is designed to apply water-borne paint. Water was used as paint surrogate for simplicity. The atomization and transport regions of the spray were investigated using laser light sheet visualizations and phase Doppler particle analyzer (PDPA). The experiments were conducted at varying levels of the three important operating parameters: liquid flow rate, shaping-air flow rate, and bellcup rotational speed. The results show that bellcup speed dominates atomization, but liquid and shaping-air flow rate settings significantly influence the spray structure. The visualization images showed that the atomization occurs in ligament breakup regime.
Technical Paper

A New Experimental Technique for Friction Simulation in Automotive Piston Ring and Cylinder Liners

A new friction testing system has been designed and built to simulate the actual engine conditions in friction and wear test of piston-ring and cylinder liner assembly. Experimental data has been developed as Friction Coefficient / Crank Angle Degree diagrams including the effects of running speed (500 and 700 rpm) and ring normal load. Surface roughness profilocorder traces were obtained for tested samples. Mixed lubrication regime observed in the most part of the test range. New cylinder bore materials and lubricants can be screened easily and more reliable simulated engine friction data can be collected using this technique.
Technical Paper

The Development of a Model for the Study of Head Injury

Experiments have revealed that the brain of the experimental animal behaves elastically in response to dynamic forces in situ. The response of the skull of the human cadaver has been investigated by means of static load-deflection tests and impact and mechanical impedance tests. This information has been used to construct a two-dimensional head model consisting of a polyester resin shell reinforced with fiberglas with plexiglass sides; a clear silicone gel brain; and spinal cord simulated by a plexiglass tube containing silicone gel supported by a piston-spring assembly. Several frames taken from motion pictures recorded at 7,000 frames/sec. show how pressure gradients in the model are displayed by observing the growth and location of bubbles during impact.
Technical Paper

Prediction of the Behaviors of Adhesively Bonded Steel Hat Section Components under Axial Impact Loading

Adhesively bonded steel hat section components have been experimentally studied in the past as a potential alternative to traditional hat section components with spot-welded flanges. One of the concerns with such components has been their performance under axial impact loading as adhesive is far more brittle as compared to a spot weld. However, recent drop-weight impact tests have shown that the energy absorption capabilities of adhesively bonded steel hat sections are competitive with respect to geometrically similar spot-welded specimens. Although flange separation may take place in the case of a specimen employing a rubber toughened epoxy adhesive, the failure would have taken place post progressive buckling and absorption of impact energy.
Technical Paper

Modeling the Vibrations of and Energy Distributions in Car Body Structures

A general numerical method, the so-called Fourier Spectral Element Method (FSEM), is described for the dynamic analysis of complex systems such as car body structures. In this method, a complex dynamic system is viewed as an assembly of a number of fundamental structural components such as beams, plates, and shells. Over each structural component, the basic solution variables (typically, the displacements) are sought as a continuous function in the form of an improved Fourier series expansion which is mathematically guaranteed to converge absolutely and uniformly over the solution domain of interest. Accordingly, the Fourier coefficients are considered as the generalized coordinates and determined using the powerful Rayleigh-Ritz method. Since this method does not involve any assumption or an introduction of any artificial model parameters, it is broadly applicable to the whole frequency range which is usually divided into low, mid, and high frequency regions.
Technical Paper

Behavior of Adhesively Bonded Steel Double Hat-Section Components under Axial Quasi-Static and Impact Loading

An attractive strategy for joining metallic as well as non-metallic substrates through adhesive bonding. This technique of joining also offers the functionality for joining dissimilar materials. However, doubts are often expressed on the ability of such joints to perform on par with other mechanical fastening methodologies such as welding, riveting, etc. In the current study, adhesively-bonded single lap shear (SLS), double lap shear (DLS) and T-peel joints are studied initially under quasi-static loading using substrates made of a grade of mild steel and an epoxy-based adhesive of a renowned make (Huntsman). Additionally, single lap shear joints comprised of a single spot weld are tested under quasi-static loading. The shear strengths of adhesively-bonded SLS joints and spot-welded SLS joints are found to be similar. An important consideration in the deployment of adhesively bonded joints in automotive body structures would be the performance of such joints under impact loading.
Technical Paper

A Unified Approach to Solder Joint Life Prediction

A unified approach has been developed and applied to solder joint life prediction in this paper, which indicates a breakthrough for solder joint reliability simulation. It includes the material characterization of solder alloys, the testing of solder joint specimens, a unified viscoplastic constitutive framework with damage evolution, numerical algorithm development and implementation, and experimental validation. The emphasis of this report focuses on the algorithm development and experimental verification of proposed viscoplasticity with damage evolution.
Technical Paper

Combined Binder Force and Temperature Adjustment for Weld Line Movement Control in Stamping with Tailor-Welded Blanks

This paper introduces a new method to assist deep drawing of tailor-welded blanks with combined restraining force control and binder temperature control. The effect of variable flange temperature and blank holding force on the formability and weld-line displacement of aluminum tailor-welded blank was studied through Finite Element Analysis using LS-DYNA PC.
Technical Paper

Visualizing Automobile Disk Brake Squeals and Corresponding Out-of-Plane Vibration Modes

Automobile disk brake squeal has always been one of the major customer complaints because of its extremely unpleasant, very high pitch and intense sound. Currently, diagnostics of vehicle brake squeals are conducted using a scanning laser vibrometer synchronized with squeals. This process is time consuming, especially when there is a hard-to-reach area for a laser beam to shine or when squeals have multiple frequencies for which filtering must be used so that individual out-of-plane vibration modes can be obtained. In this paper, a different method known as Helmholtz equation least squares (HELS) method based nearfield acoustical holography (NAH) is used to reconstruct all acoustic quantities, including the acoustic pressure, normal components of the surface velocity and acoustic intensity. In particular, the locations from which squeal is originated are identified and the out-of-plane vibration modes that are responsible for squeal sounds are established.
Technical Paper

Behavior of Adhesively Bonded Steel Double-Hat Section Components under Lateral Impact Loading

Recent experimental studies on the behavior of adhesively-bonded steel double-hat section components under axial impact loading have produced encouraging results in terms of load-displacement response and energy absorption when compared to traditional spot-welded hat- sections. However, it appears that extremely limited study has been carried out on the behavior of such components under transverse impact loading keeping in mind applications such as automotive body structures subject to lateral/side impact. In the present work, lateral impact studies have been carried out in a drop-weight test set-up on adhesively-bonded steel double-hat section components and the performance of such components has been compared against their conventional spot-welded and hybrid counterparts. It is clarified that hybrid components in the present context refer to adhesively-bonded hat-sections with a few spot welds only aimed at preventing catastrophic flange separations.
Journal Article

A Component Test Methodology for Simulation of Full-Vehicle Side Impact Dummy Abdomen Responses for Door Trim Evaluation

Described in this paper is a component test methodology to evaluate the door trim armrest performance in an Insurance Institute for Highway Safety (IIHS) side impact test and to predict the SID-IIs abdomen injury metrics (rib deflection, deflection rate and V*C). The test methodology consisted of a sub-assembly of two SID-IIs abdomen ribs with spine box, mounted on a linear bearing and allowed to translate in the direction of impact. The spine box with the assembly of two abdominal ribs was rigidly attached to the sliding test fixture, and is stationary at the start of the test. The door trim armrest was mounted on the impactor, which was prescribed the door velocity profile obtained from full-vehicle test. The location and orientation of the armrest relative to the dummy abdomen ribs was maintained the same as in the full-vehicle test.