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Technical Paper

A Review of Mixture Preparation and Combustion Control Strategies for Spark-Ignited Direct-Injection Gasoline Engines

The current extensive revisitation of the application of gasoline direct-injection to automotive, four-stroke, spark-ignition engines has been prompted by the availability of technological capabilities that did not exist in the late 1970s, and that can now be utilized in the engine development process. The availability of new engine hardware that permits an enhanced level of computer control and dynamic optimization has alleviated many of the system limitations that were encountered in the time period from 1976 to 1984, when the capabilities of direct-injection, stratified-charge, spark-ignition engines were thoroughly researched. This paper incorporates a critical review of the current worldwide research and development activities in the gasoline direct-injection field, and provides insight into new areas of technology that are being applied to the development of both production and prototype engines.
Technical Paper

Parallel-Through-The-Road Plug-In Hybrid Vehicle Modeling and Simulation by Wayne State University for EcoCAR2

The Wayne State University (WSU) EcoCAR2 student team designed, modeled, Model-In-the-Loop (MIL) tested, Software-In-the-Loop (SIL) simulation tested, and Hardware-In-the-Loop (HIL) simulation tested the team's conversion design for taking a 2013 Chevrolet Malibu and converting it into a Parallel-Through-The-Road (PTTR) plug-in hybrid. The 2013 Malibu is a conventional Front Wheel Drive (FWD) vehicle and the team's conversion design keeps the conventional FWD and adds a Rear Wheel Drive (RWD) powertrain consisting of an electric motor, a single speed reduction gearbox and a differential to drive the rear wheels -where none of these previously existed on the rear wheels. The RWD addition creates the PTTR hybrid powertrain architecture of two driven axles where the mechanical torque path connection between the two powertrains is through the road, rather than a mechanical torque path through gears, chains, or shafts.
Technical Paper

Equivalent Drive Cycle Analysis, Simulation, and Testing - Wayne State University's On-Road Route for EcoCAR2

The Wayne State University (WSU) EcoCAR2 student team is participating in a design competition for the conversion of a 2013 Chevrolet Malibu into a plug-in hybrid. The team created a repeatable on-road test drive route using local public roads near the university that would be of similar velocity ranges contained in the EcoCAR2 4-Cycle Drive Schedule - a weighted combination of four different EPA-based drive cycles (US06 split into city and highway portions, all of the HWFET, first 505 seconds portion of UDDS). The primary purpose of the team's local on-road route was to be suitable for testing the team's added hybrid components and control strategy for minimizing petroleum consumption and tail pipe emissions. Comparison analysis of velocities was performed between seven local routes and the EcoCAR2 4-Cycle Drive Schedule. Three of the seven local routes had acceptable equivalence for velocity (R₂ ≻ 0.80) and the team selected one of them to be the on-road test drive route.
Technical Paper

Developing Modeling and Simulation Tools in Class to Prepare Engineering Students for the Automotive Industry

The Wayne State University EcoCAR2 team provided its members with Modeling and Simulation training course for the second summer of the competition. EcoCAR2 is a three-year Advanced Vehicle Technology Competition (AVTC) sponsored by General Motors and the Department of Energy. The course lasted three months and included 45 hours of formal lectures and class hands-on work and an estimated one hundred and fifty hours in home assignments that directly contributed to the team's deliverables. The course described here is unique. The design and class examples were extracted from an in-house complete vehicle simulation and control code to ensure hands-on, interactive training based on real-world problems. The course investigated the physics behind every major powertrain component of a hybrid electric vehicle and the different ways to model the components into a full vehicle simulation.
Technical Paper

Optimization for Plug-In Vehicles - Waste Heat Recovery from the Electric Traction Motor

The Wayne State University (WSU) EcoCAR2 student team is investigating powertrain optimizations as a part of their participation in the EcoCAR2 design competition for the conversion of a 2013 Chevrolet Malibu into a plug-in hybrid. EcoCAR2 is the current three-year Department of Energy (DoE) Advanced Vehicle Technical Competition (AVTC) for 15 select university student teams competing on designing, building, and then optimizing their Plug-In Hybrid conversions of GM donated vehicles. WSU's powertrain design provides for approximately 56-64 km (35-40 miles) of electric driving before the Internal Combustion Engine (ICE) powertrain is needed. When the ICE is started, the ICE traditionally goes through a cold start with the engine, transmission, and final drive all at ambient temperature. The ICE powertrain components are most efficient when warmed up to their normal operating temperature, typically around 90-100 °C.
Technical Paper

Autoignition and Combustion of ULSD and JP8 during Cold Starting of a High Speed Diesel Engine

Cold starting problems of diesel engines are caused mainly by the failure of the auto-ignition process or the subsequent combustion of the rest of the charge. The problems include long cranking periods and combustion instability leading to an increase in fuel consumption in addition to the emission of undesirable unburned hydrocarbons which appear in the exhaust as white smoke. The major cause of these problems is the low temperature and pressure of the charge near the end of the compression stroke and/or the poor ignition quality of the fuel. This paper presents the results of an experimental investigation of cold starting of a high speed diesel engine with ULSD (Ultra Low Sulphur Diesel) and JP8 (Jet Propulsion) fuels at ambient temperature (25°C). A detailed analysis is made of the autoignition and combustion of the two fuels in the first few cycles in the cold start transient. In addition, a comparison is made between these processes for the two fuels during idle operation.
Technical Paper

Utilizing Public Vehicle Travel Survey Data Sets for Vehicle Driving Pattern and Fuel Economy Studies

Realistic vehicle fuel economy studies require real-world vehicle driving behavior data along with various factors affecting the fuel consumption. Such studies require data with various vehicles usages for prolonged periods of time. A project dedicated to collecting such data is an enormous and costly undertaking. Alternatively, we propose to utilize two publicly available vehicle travel survey data sets. One is Puget Sound Travel Survey collected using GPS devices in 484 vehicles between 2004 and 2006. Over 750,000 trips were recorded with a 10-second time resolution. The data were obtained to study travel behavior changes in response to time-and-location-variable road tolling. The other is Atlanta Regional Commission Travel Survey conducted for a comprehensive study of the demographic and travel behavior characteristics of residents within the study area.
Technical Paper

Numerical Investigation of Natural Gas-Diesel Dual Fuel Engine with End Gas Ignition

The present study helps to understand the local combustion characteristics of PREmixed Mixture Ignition in the End-gas Region (PREMIER) combustion mode while using increasing amount of natural gas as a diesel substitute in conventional CI engine. In order to reduce NOx emission and diesel fuel consumption micro-pilot diesel injection in premixed natural gas-air mixture is a promising technique. New strategy has been employed to simulate dual fuel combustion which uses well established combustion models. Main focus of the simulation is at detection of an end gas ignition, and creating an unified modeling approach for dual fuel combustion. In this study G-equation flame propagation model is used with detailed chemistry in order to detect end-gas ignition in overall low temperature combustion. This combustion simulation model is validated using comparison with experimental data for dual fuel engine.
Technical Paper

Effect of Injection Pressure and Swirl Motion on Diesel Engine-out Emissions in Conventional and Advanced Combustion Regimes

The fuel injection pressure and the swirl motion have a great impact on combustion in small bore HSDI diesel engines running on the conventional or advanced combustion concepts. This paper examines the effects of injection pressure and the swirl motion on engine-out emissions over a wide range of EGR rates. Experiments were conducted on a single cylinder, 4-valve, direct injection diesel engine equipped with a common rail injection system. The pressures and temperatures in the inlet and exhaust surge tanks were adjusted to simulate turbocharged engine conditions. The load and speed of the engine were typical to highway cruising operation of a light duty vehicle. The experiments covered a wide range of injection pressures, swirl ratios and injection timings. Engine-out emission measurements included hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide, smoke (in Bosch Smoke Units, BSU) and NOx.
Technical Paper

Experimental and Simulation Analysis of PFI-SI Engine for Fuel Economy Improvement

Variable Valve Timing (VVT) strategy on both intake and exhaust valves has a pivotal influence on the specific fuel consumptions and engine performance. In addition to this, fuel economy can also be enhanced by the application of Variable Compression Ratio (VCR) strategy. This paper presents three possible strategies to enhance fuel economy improvement: A possible VVT strategy Early Intake Valve Opening (EIVO) and Late Exhaust Valve Closure (LEVC) that alters the valve overlap to reduce fuel consumption A two-position VCR system that improves fuel conversion factor to realize fuel economy A strategy that combines above two technologies to produce a complementary effect on fuel economy All three strategies have been tested on a 1.8L DOHC four cylinder PFI engine. AVL BOOST a 1D engine gas exchange and cycle simulation code was used to model this engine to get fuel economy gains at part-load points.
Technical Paper

A Simple Linear Approach for Transient Fuel Control

Significant A/F ratio excursion may occur during some engine transient operations, especially for transient periods of throttle tip in or tip out. A/F ratio excursion results in excessive emissions, extra fuel consumption, driveability deterioration and three-way-catalyst (TWC) efficiency drop. Simple two-parameter (X, τ) wall wetting models have traditionally been used to describe this transient A/F ratio excursion phenomenon. The transient fuel control techniques are utilized for this model to be applicable across vehicles, engines, fuel types and ambient conditions, so as to compensate for the A/F ratio excursion with the extra compensation fuel. More complicated model structures must be further expanded and model dependence on various environment conditions must be established to achieve a precise model. In this paper, a simple linear approach is proposed for transient fuel control, using least squares estimation.
Journal Article

Experimental Assessments of Parallel Hybrid Medium-Duty Truck

Fuel consumption reduction on medium-duty tactical truck has and continues to be a significant initiative for the U.S. Army. The Crankshaft-Integrated-Starter-Generator (C-ISG) is one of the parallel hybrid propulsions to improve the fuel economy. The C-ISG configuration is attractive because one electric machine can be used to propel the vehicle, to start the engine, and to be function as a generator. The C-ISG has been implemented in one M1083A1 5-ton tactical cargo truck. This paper presents the experimental assessments of the C-ISG hybrid truck characteristics. The experimental assessments include all electric range for on- and off-road mission cycles and fuel consumption for the high voltage battery charging. Stationary tests related to the charging profile of the battery pack and the silent watch time duration is also conducted.
Journal Article

Performance of an IDI Engine Fueled with Fatty Acid Methyl Esters Formulated from Cotton Seeds Oils

This study evaluates the performance of an indirect injection (IDI) diesel engine fueled with cotton seed biodiesel while assessing the engine's multi-fuel capability. Millions of tons of cotton seeds are available in the south of the US every year and approximately 10% of oil contained in the seeds can be extracted and transesterified. An investigation of combustion, emissions, and efficiency was performed using mass ratios of 20-50% cotton seed biodiesel (CS20 and CS50) in ultra-low sulfur diesel #2 (ULSD#2). Each investigation was run at 2400 rpm with loads of 4.2 - 6.3 IMEP and compared to the reference fuel ULDS#2. The ignition delay ranged in a narrow interval of 0.8-0.97ms across the blends and the heat release rate showed comparable values and trends for all fuel blends. The maximum volume averaged cylinder temperature increased by approximately 100K with each increase in 1 bar IMEP load but the maximum remained constants across the blends.
Journal Article

Deterioration of B20 from Compression Ignition Engine Operation

Biodiesel has been widely accepted as an alternative for fossil-derived diesel fuel for use in compression ignition (CI) engines. Poor oxidative stability and cold flow properties restrict the use of biodiesel beyond current B20 blend levels (20% biodiesel in 80% ULSD) for vehicle applications. Maintaining the properties of B20 as specified by ASTM D7476-08 is important because, once out of spec, B20 may cause injector coke formation, fuel filter plugging, increased exhaust emissions, and overall loss of engine performance. While the properties of fresh B20 may be within the specifications, under engine operating and longer storage conditions B20 could deteriorate. In a diesel engine, the fuel that goes to the injector and does not enter the cylinder is recycled back to the fuel tank. The re-circulated fuel returns to the fuel tank at an elevate temperature, which can cause thermal oxidation.