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Technical Paper

Evaluation of a Portable Micro-Dilution Tunnel Particulate Measurement System

2005-10-24
2005-01-3789
The Federal Test Procedure (FTP) for heavy-duty engines requires the use of a full-flow tunnel based constant volume sampler (CVS) which is costly to build and maintain, and requires a large workspace. A portable micro-dilution system that could be used for measuring on-board, in use emissions from heavy duty vehicles would be an inexpensive alternative compared to a full-flow CVS tunnel, as well as requiring significantly less workspace. This paper evaluates such a portable particulate matter measuring system. This micro-dilution tunnel operates on the same principle as a full-flow tunnel, however dilution ratios can be more easily controlled with the micro dilution system. The dilution ratios for the micro-dilution system were maintained at least four to one, as per ISO 8178 requirements, by measuring the mass flow rates of the dilution air and dilute exhaust.
Technical Paper

Design of a Portable Micro-Dilution Tunnel Particulate Matter Emissions Measurement System

2005-10-24
2005-01-3795
The Federal Test Procedure (FTP) for heavy-duty engines requires the use of a full-flow tunnel based constant volume sampler (CVS). These are costly to build and maintain, and require a large workspace. A small portable micro-dilution system that could be used on-board, for measuring emissions of in-use, heavy-duty vehicles would be an inexpensive alternative. This paper presents the rationale behind the design of such a portable particulate matter measuring system. The presented micro-dilution tunnel operates on the same principle as a full-flow tunnel, however given the reduced size dilution ratios can be more easily controlled with the micro dilution system. The design targets dilution ratios of at least four to one, in accordance with the ISO 8178 requirements. The unique features of the micro-dilution system are the use of only a single pump and a porous sintered stainless steel tube for mixing dilution air and raw exhaust sample.
Technical Paper

Inference of Torque and Power from Heavy-Duty Diesel Engines for On-Road Emissions Monitoring

2002-03-04
2002-01-0614
Increased concerns about the emissions produced from mobile sources have placed an emphasis on the in-use monitoring of on- and off-road vehicles. Measuring the emissions emitted from an in-use vehicle during its operation provides for a rich dataset that is generally too expensive and too time consuming to reproduce in a laboratory setting. Many portable systems have been developed and implemented in the past to acquire in-use emissions data for spark ignited and compression ignited engines. However, the majority of these systems only measured the concentration levels of the exhaust constituents and or reported the results in time-specific (g/s) and or distance-specific (g/km) mass units through knowledge of the exhaust flow. For heavy-duty engines, it is desirable to report the in-use emission levels in brake-specific mass units (g/kW-hr) since that is how the emission levels are reported from engine dynamometer certification testing.
Journal Article

Summary of In-use NOx Emissions from Heavy-Duty Diesel Engines

2008-04-14
2008-01-1298
As part of the 1998 Consent Decrees concerning alternative ignition strategies between the six settling heavy-duty diesel engine manufacturers and the United States government, the engine manufacturers agreed to perform in-use emissions measurements of their engines. As part of the Consent Decrees, pre- (Phase III, pre-2000 engines) and post- (Phase IV, 2001 to 2003 engines) Consent Decree engines used in over-the-road vehicles were tested to examine the emissions of oxides of nitrogen (NOx) and carbon dioxide (CO2). A summary of the emissions of NOx and CO2 and fuel consumption from the Phase III and Phase IV engines are presented for 30 second “Not-to-Exceed” (NTE) window brake-specific values. There were approximately 700 Phase III tests and 850 Phase IV tests evaluated in this study, incorporating over 170 different heavy duty diesel engines spanning 1994 to 2003 model years. Test vehicles were operated over city, suburban, and highway routes.
Journal Article

A Work-Based Window Method for Calculating In-Use Brake-Specific NOx Emissions of Heavy-Duty Diesel Engines

2008-04-14
2008-01-1301
A work-based window method has been developed to calculate in-use brake-specific oxides of nitrogen (NOx) emissions for all engine speeds and engine loads. During an in-use test, engine speed and engine torque are read from the engine's electronic control unit, and along with time, are used to determine instantaneous engine power. Instantaneous work is calculated using this power and the time differential in the data collection. Work is then summed until the target amount of work is accumulated. The emissions levels are then calculated for that window of work. It was determined that a work window equal to the theoretical Federal Test Procedure (FTP) cycle work best provides a means of comparison to the FTP certification standard. Also, a failure criterion has been established based on the average amount of power generated in the work window and the amount of time required to achieve the target work window to determine if a particular work window is valid.
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