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Technical Paper

The Coaxial Cavity Resonator as a RF IC Engine Ignition Source

2001-03-05
2001-01-0987
The Quarter Wave Coaxial Cavity Resonator (QWCCR) plasma igniter is designed, from previous theoretical work, as an ignition source for an internal combustion engine. The present research has explored the implementation of the QWCCR into an internal combustion (IC) engine. The QWCCR design parameters of inner conductor length, loop geometry, and loop position were varied for two igniters of differing operating frequency. Variations of the QWCCR radio frequency (RF) parameters, as a function of engine geometry, were studied by placing the igniter in a combustion chamber and manually varying the crank position. Three identical igniters were fitted with dielectric inserts and the parameters were studied before and after ignition was sustained in a twin-cylinder engine. Optimal resonator geometries were determined. Radio frequency parameter invariance was found with respect to crank angle and piston distance. The first successful IC engine ignition using a QWCCR was achieved.
Technical Paper

and Repeatability of Transient Heat Release Analysis for Heavy Duty Diesel Engines

2009-04-20
2009-01-1125
Reduced emissions, improved fuel economy, and improved performance are a priority for manufacturers of internal combustion engines. However, these three goals are normally interrelated and difficult to optimize simultaneously. Studying the experimental heat release provides a useful tool for combustion optimization. Heavy-duty diesel engines are inherently transient, even during steady state operation engine controls can vary due to exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) or aftertreatment requirements. This paper examines the heat release and the derived combustion characteristics during steady state and transient operation for a 1992 DDC series 60 engine and a 2004 Cummins ISM 370 engine. In-cylinder pressure was collected during repeat steady state SET and the heavy-duty transient FTP test cycles.
Technical Paper

Heat Release and Emission Characteristics of B20 Biodiesel Fuels During Steady State and Transient Operation

2008-04-14
2008-01-1377
Biodiesel fuels benefit both from being a renewable energy source and from decreasing in carbon monoxide (CO), total hydrocarbons (THC), and particulate matter (PM) emissions relative to petroleum diesel. The oxides of nitrogen (NOx) emissions from biodiesel blended fuels reported in the literature vary relative to baseline diesel NOx, with no NOx change or a NOx decrease found by some to an increase in NOx found by others. To explore differences in NOx, two Cummins ISM engines (1999 and 2004) were operated on 20% biodiesel blends during the heavy-duty transient FTP cycle and the steady state Supplemental Emissions Test. For the 2004 Cummins ISM engine, in-cylinder pressure data were collected during the steady state and transient tests. Three types of biodiesel fuels were used in the blends: soy, tallow (animal fat), and cottonseed. The FTP integrated emissions of the B20 blends produced a 20-35% reduction in PM and no change or up to a 4.3% increase in NOx over the neat diesel.
Technical Paper

Simulation of a Continuously Variable Power Split Transmission

1999-03-01
1999-01-0062
Continuously variable transmissions promise to improve the performance and drivability of vehicles. The design and implementation of continuously variable transmissions for medium or large displacement (power) engines have been hampered by the power limitations of the belts. A continuously variable transmission with a power split design (CVPST) has been developed to minimize the loading on the belt while providing for increased power transfer compared to existing designs. To aid in the design and development of this CVPST, a simulator program has been developed. The simulator can be used to optimize the CVPST and to compare with other transmissions. Finally, an optimized CVPST design is presented.
Technical Paper

Transient Emissions Comparisons of Alternative Compression Ignition Fuels

1999-03-01
1999-01-1117
The effects of fuel composition on emissions levels from compression ignition engines can be profound, and this understanding has led to mandated reductions in both sulfur and aromatic content of automotive diesel fuels. A Navistar T444E (V8, 7.3 liter) engine was installed on an engine dynamometer and subjected to transient emissions measurement using a variety of fuels, namely federal low sulfur pump diesel; California pump diesel; Malaysian Fischer-Tropsch fuel with very low sulfur and aromatic content; various blends of soy-derived biodiesel; a Fischer-Tropsch fuel with very low sulfur and 10% aromatics; and the same Fischer-Tropsch fuel with 10% isobutanol by volume. The biodiesel blends showed their ability to reduce particulate matter, but at the expense of increasing oxides of nitrogen (NOx), following the simple argument that cetane enhancement led to earlier ignition. However, the Fischer-Tropsch fuels showed their ability to reduce all of the regulated emissions.
Technical Paper

Weight Effect on Emissions and Fuel Consumption from Diesel and Lean-Burn Natural Gas Transit Buses

2007-08-05
2007-01-3626
Transit agencies across the United States operate bus fleets primarily powered by diesel, natural gas, and hybrid drive systems. Passenger loading affects the power demanded from the engine, which in turn affects distance-specific emissions and fuel consumption. Analysis shows that the nature of bus activity, taking into account the idle time, tire rolling resistance, wind drag, and acceleration energy, influences the way in which passenger load impacts emissions. Emissions performance and fuel consumption from diesel and natural gas powered buses were characterized by the West Virginia University (WVU) Transportable Emissions Testing Laboratory. A comparison matrix for all three bus technologies included three common driving cycles (the Braunschweig Cycle, the OCTA Cycle, and the ADEME-RATP Paris Cycle). Each bus was tested at three different passenger loading conditions (empty weight, half weight, and full weight).
Technical Paper

Experimental and Error Analysis Investigation into Dilution Factor Equations

2007-04-16
2007-01-0310
As emission regulations become increasingly strict, the need for more accurate sampling systems becomes essential. When calculating emissions from a dilution system, a correction is made to remove the effects of contaminants in the dilution air. The dilution air correction was explored to determine why this correction is needed, when this correction is important, and what methods are available for calculating the dilution factor (DF). An experimental and error analysis investigation into the standard and recently proposed methods for calculating the DF was conducted. Five steady state modes were run on a 1992 Detroit Diesel engine series 60 and the DF from eleven different equations were investigated. The effects of an inaccurate dilution air correction on calculated fuel flow from a carbon balance and the mass emissions was analyzed. The dilution air correction was shown to be important only for hydrocarbons, particulate matter (PM), and CO2.
Technical Paper

Downwash Wake Reduction Investigation for Application on the V-22 “Osprey”

2003-09-08
2003-01-3020
The downwash of the prop-rotor blades of the Bell/Boeing V-22 “Osprey” in hover mode creates an undesirable negative lift on the wing of the aircraft. This downforce can be reduced through a number of methods. Neglecting all other effects, such as power requirements, this research investigated the feasibility of using circulation control, through blowing slots on the leading and trailing edge of the airfoil to reduce the wake profile under the wing. A model was built at West Virginia University (WVU) and tested in a Closed Loop Wind Tunnel. The airfoil was placed normal to the airflow using the tunnel air to simulate the vertical component of the downwash experienced in hover mode. The standard hover mode flap angle of 67 degrees was used throughout the testing covered in this paper. All of these tests were conducted at a free stream velocity of 59 fps, and the baseline downforce on the model was measured to be 5.45 lbs.
Technical Paper

Rotary Engines – A Concept Review

2003-10-27
2003-01-3206
The basic design of a purely rotary motion engine has potentially many advantages over the conventional piston-crank internal combustion engine. Although only one rotary engine has been successfully placed into production, rotary mechanisms still show promise in the market place. A comprehensive review of rotary engine concepts is presented with an emphasis placed on the last 30 years. Suggestions are made as to where research concentrations should be placed to improve the progress of a rotary engine.
Technical Paper

Speciation of Organic Compounds from the Exhaust of Trucks and Buses: Effect of Fuel and After-Treatment on Vehicle Emission Profiles

2002-10-21
2002-01-2873
A study was performed in the spring of 2001 to chemically characterize exhaust emissions from trucks and buses fueled by various test fuels and operated with and without diesel particle filters. This study was part of a multi-year technology validation program designed to evaluate the emissions impact of ultra-low sulfur diesel fuels and passive diesel particle filters (DPF) in several different heavy-duty vehicle fleets operating in Southern California. The overall study of exhaust chemical composition included organic compounds, inorganic ions, individual elements, and particulate matter in various size-cuts. Detailed descriptions of the overall technology validation program and chemical speciation methodology have been provided in previous SAE publications (2002-01-0432 and 2002-01-0433).
Technical Paper

Inference of Torque and Power from Heavy-Duty Diesel Engines for On-Road Emissions Monitoring

2002-03-04
2002-01-0614
Increased concerns about the emissions produced from mobile sources have placed an emphasis on the in-use monitoring of on- and off-road vehicles. Measuring the emissions emitted from an in-use vehicle during its operation provides for a rich dataset that is generally too expensive and too time consuming to reproduce in a laboratory setting. Many portable systems have been developed and implemented in the past to acquire in-use emissions data for spark ignited and compression ignited engines. However, the majority of these systems only measured the concentration levels of the exhaust constituents and or reported the results in time-specific (g/s) and or distance-specific (g/km) mass units through knowledge of the exhaust flow. For heavy-duty engines, it is desirable to report the in-use emission levels in brake-specific mass units (g/kW-hr) since that is how the emission levels are reported from engine dynamometer certification testing.
Technical Paper

Chemical Speciation of Exhaust Emissions from Trucks and Buses Fueled on Ultra-Low Sulfur Diesel and CNG

2002-03-04
2002-01-0432
A recently completed program was developed to evaluate ultra-low sulfur diesel fuels and passive diesel particle filters (DPF) in several different truck and bus fleets operating in Southern California. The primary test fuels, ECD and ECD-1, are produced by ARCO, a BP company, and have less than 15 ppm sulfur content. A test fleet comprised of heavy-duty trucks and buses were retrofitted with one of two types of catalyzed diesel particle filters, and operated for one year. As part of this program, a chemical characterization study was performed in the spring of 2001 to compare the exhaust emissions using the test fuels with and without aftertreatment. A detailed speciation of volatile organic hydrocarbons (VOC), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), nitro-PAH, carbonyls, polychlorodibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDD) and polychlorodibenzo-p-furans (PCDF), inorganic ions, elements, PM10, and PM2.5 in diesel exhaust was performed for a select set of vehicles.
Journal Article

Summary of In-use NOx Emissions from Heavy-Duty Diesel Engines

2008-04-14
2008-01-1298
As part of the 1998 Consent Decrees concerning alternative ignition strategies between the six settling heavy-duty diesel engine manufacturers and the United States government, the engine manufacturers agreed to perform in-use emissions measurements of their engines. As part of the Consent Decrees, pre- (Phase III, pre-2000 engines) and post- (Phase IV, 2001 to 2003 engines) Consent Decree engines used in over-the-road vehicles were tested to examine the emissions of oxides of nitrogen (NOx) and carbon dioxide (CO2). A summary of the emissions of NOx and CO2 and fuel consumption from the Phase III and Phase IV engines are presented for 30 second “Not-to-Exceed” (NTE) window brake-specific values. There were approximately 700 Phase III tests and 850 Phase IV tests evaluated in this study, incorporating over 170 different heavy duty diesel engines spanning 1994 to 2003 model years. Test vehicles were operated over city, suburban, and highway routes.
Journal Article

A Work-Based Window Method for Calculating In-Use Brake-Specific NOx Emissions of Heavy-Duty Diesel Engines

2008-04-14
2008-01-1301
A work-based window method has been developed to calculate in-use brake-specific oxides of nitrogen (NOx) emissions for all engine speeds and engine loads. During an in-use test, engine speed and engine torque are read from the engine's electronic control unit, and along with time, are used to determine instantaneous engine power. Instantaneous work is calculated using this power and the time differential in the data collection. Work is then summed until the target amount of work is accumulated. The emissions levels are then calculated for that window of work. It was determined that a work window equal to the theoretical Federal Test Procedure (FTP) cycle work best provides a means of comparison to the FTP certification standard. Also, a failure criterion has been established based on the average amount of power generated in the work window and the amount of time required to achieve the target work window to determine if a particular work window is valid.
Journal Article

The Influence of Accelerator Pedal Position Control during Transient Laboratory Testing on Heavy Duty Diesel Engines

2009-04-20
2009-01-0619
Pollutants are a major issue of diesel engines, with oxides of nitrogen (NOx) and airborne total particulate matter (TPM) of primary concern. Current emission standards rely on laboratory testing using an engine dynamometer with a standard test procedure. Results are reported as an integrated value for emissions from a transient set of engine speed and load conditions over a length of time or a set of prescribed speed-load points. To be considered a valid test by the US EPA, the measured engine speed and load are compared to the prescribed engine speed and load and must be within prescribed regression limits.
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