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Technical Paper

Transient Emissions Comparisons of Alternative Compression Ignition Fuels

1999-03-01
1999-01-1117
The effects of fuel composition on emissions levels from compression ignition engines can be profound, and this understanding has led to mandated reductions in both sulfur and aromatic content of automotive diesel fuels. A Navistar T444E (V8, 7.3 liter) engine was installed on an engine dynamometer and subjected to transient emissions measurement using a variety of fuels, namely federal low sulfur pump diesel; California pump diesel; Malaysian Fischer-Tropsch fuel with very low sulfur and aromatic content; various blends of soy-derived biodiesel; a Fischer-Tropsch fuel with very low sulfur and 10% aromatics; and the same Fischer-Tropsch fuel with 10% isobutanol by volume. The biodiesel blends showed their ability to reduce particulate matter, but at the expense of increasing oxides of nitrogen (NOx), following the simple argument that cetane enhancement led to earlier ignition. However, the Fischer-Tropsch fuels showed their ability to reduce all of the regulated emissions.
Technical Paper

Examination of a Heavy Heavy-Duty Diesel Truck Chassis Dynamometer Schedule

2004-10-25
2004-01-2904
Repeatable measurement of real-world heavy-duty diesel truck emissions requires the use of a chassis dynamometer with a test schedule that reasonably represents actual truck use. A new Heavy Heavy-Duty Diesel Truck (HHDDT) schedule has been created that consists of four modes, termed Idle, Creep, Transient and Cruise. The effect of driving style on emissions from the Transient Mode was studied by driving a 400 hp Mack tractor at 56,000 lbs. test weight in fashions termed “Medium”, “Good”, “Bad”, “Casual” and “Aggressive”. Although there were noticeable differences in the actual speed vs. time trace for these five styles, emissions of the important species oxides of nitrogen (NOx) and particulate matter (PM), varied little with a coefficient of variation (COV) of 5.13% on NOX and 10.68% on PM. Typical NOx values for the HHDDT Transient mode ranged from 19.9 g/mile to 22.75 g/mile. The Transient mode which was the most difficult mode to drive, proved to be repeatable.
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