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Technical Paper

Potential Applications of the Stiller-Smith Mechanism in internal Combustion Engine Designs

With few exceptions most internal combustion engines use a slider-crank mechanism to convert reciprocating piston motion into a usable rotational output. One such exception is the Stiller-Smith Mechanism which utilizes a kinematic inversion of a Scotch yoke called an elliptic trammel. The device uses rigid connecting rods and a floating/eccentric gear train for motion conversion and force transmission. The mechanism exhibits advantages over the slider-crank for application in internal combustion engines in areas such as balancing, size, thermal efficiency, and low heat rejection. An overview of potential advantages of an engine utilizing the Stiller-Smith Mechanism is presented.
Technical Paper

Simulation of a Continuously Variable Power Split Transmission

Continuously variable transmissions promise to improve the performance and drivability of vehicles. The design and implementation of continuously variable transmissions for medium or large displacement (power) engines have been hampered by the power limitations of the belts. A continuously variable transmission with a power split design (CVPST) has been developed to minimize the loading on the belt while providing for increased power transfer compared to existing designs. To aid in the design and development of this CVPST, a simulator program has been developed. The simulator can be used to optimize the CVPST and to compare with other transmissions. Finally, an optimized CVPST design is presented.
Technical Paper

Technological Evaluation of Fuel Efficiency Improvement Concepts to Meet Future Regulatory Requirements in the North American Market

As fuel economy and emissions regulations increase in stringence, automakers face ever increasing difficulty in meeting government imposed standards. In this paper a study of fuel economy improving techniques used to meet these regulations, notably Corporate Average Fuel Economy (CAFE), and the upper limit on the effectiveness of these techniques is presented. The effects of external vehicle improvements, such as lightweighting, rolling resistance and aerodynamic improvements were investigated to illustrate the limitations of these methods to dramatically improve overall vehicle efficiency. Engine efficiency improvements, including the effects of compression ignition (unthrottled) versus spark ignition (throttled) engine types were examined. Other engine efficiency areas that were investigated were the implementation of cylinder deactivation and gasoline direct injection engines.
Technical Paper

Heavy-Duty Aerodynamic Testing for CO2 Certification: A Methodology Comparison

Aerodynamic drag testing is a key component of the CO2 certification schemes for heavy-duty vehicles around the world. This paper presents and compares the regulatory approaches for measuring the drag coefficient of heavy-duty vehicles in Europe, which uses a constant-speed test, and in the United States and Canada, which use a coastdown test. Two European trucks and one North American truck were tested using the constant-speed and coastdown methods. When corrected to zero yaw angle, a difference of up to 12% was observed in the measured drag coefficients from the US coastdown procedure and the EU constant-speed test.