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Technical Paper

A Naturally Aspirated Four Stroke Racing Engine with One Intake and One Exhaust Horizontal Rotary Valve per Cylinder and Central Direct Injection and Ignition by Spark or Jet

The paper discusses the benefits of a four stroke engine having one intake and one exhaust rotary valve. The rotary valve has a speed of rotation half the crankshaft and defines an open passage that may permit up to extremely sharp opening or closing and very large gas exchange areas. The dual rotary valve design is applied to a racing engine naturally aspirated V-four engine of 1000cc displacement, gasoline fuelled with central direct injection and spark ignition. The engine is then modeled by using a 1D engine & gas dynamics simulation software package to assess the potentials of the solution. The improved design produces much larger power densities than the version of the engines with traditional poppet valves revving at higher speeds, with reduced frictional losses, and with larger gas exchange areas while also improving the fuel conversion efficiency thanks to the sharpness of opening or closing events.
Technical Paper

Electrical Force Effects on Spray Cooling

Initial results are reported for the effects of electrical body forces on heat transfer performance of an instrumented spray cooling experiment. Heat transfer performance is documented for ranges of electrode voltage, spray volume flow rate, and heater power level using a Thick Film Resistor heater. The heat transfer coefficient increases with increased spray flow rate, and also increases somewhat versus heat flux. Without the electrical body forces, different brass and PVC spray nozzles show significant variation in spray cooling performance (order of ±5-15%) whenever the nozzle is realigned. Changing the nozzle-to-heater spacing results in similar performance variations. Initial Kelvin force electrode designs show no improvement in heat transfer performance using FC-72, while a Coulomb force electrode geometry and a second-generation Kelvin force electrode design both show modest but consistent improvements (order of 10% in heat flux; order of 5% for Nusselt number) using HFE-7000.
Technical Paper

Evaluation of a Portable Micro-Dilution Tunnel Particulate Measurement System

The Federal Test Procedure (FTP) for heavy-duty engines requires the use of a full-flow tunnel based constant volume sampler (CVS) which is costly to build and maintain, and requires a large workspace. A portable micro-dilution system that could be used for measuring on-board, in use emissions from heavy duty vehicles would be an inexpensive alternative compared to a full-flow CVS tunnel, as well as requiring significantly less workspace. This paper evaluates such a portable particulate matter measuring system. This micro-dilution tunnel operates on the same principle as a full-flow tunnel, however dilution ratios can be more easily controlled with the micro dilution system. The dilution ratios for the micro-dilution system were maintained at least four to one, as per ISO 8178 requirements, by measuring the mass flow rates of the dilution air and dilute exhaust.