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Technical Paper

Analysis of Lightweighting Design Alternatives for Automotive Components

Gasoline-powered vehicles compose the vast majority of all light-duty vehicles in the United States. Improving fuel economy is currently a topic of great interest due to the rapid rise in gasoline costs as well as new fuel-economy and greenhouse-gas emissions standards. The Chevrolet Silverado is currently one of the top selling trucks in the U.S. and has been previously modeled using the commercial finite element code LS-DYNA by the National Crash Analysis Center (NCAC). This state-of the art model was employed to examine alternative weight saving configurations using material alternatives and replacement of traditional steel with composite panels. Detailed mass distribution analysis demonstrated the chassis assembly to be an ideal candidate for weight reduction and was redesigned using Aluminum 7075-T6 Alloy and Magnesium Alloy HM41A-F.
Technical Paper

Influence of Materials Properties on Process Planning Effectiveness

Process planning, whether generative or variant, can be used effectively as through the incorporation of computer aided tools that enhance the evaluator impact of the dialogue between the design and manufacturing functions. Expert systems and algorithms are inherently incorporated into the software tools used herein. This paper examines the materials related implications that influence design for manufacturing issues. Generative process planning software tools are utilized to analyze the sensitivity of the effectiveness of the process plans with respect to changing attributes of material properties. The shift that occurs with respect to cost and production rates of process plans with respect to variations in specific material properties are explored. The research will be analyzing the effect of changes in material properties with respect to the design of a specific product that is prismatic and is produced exclusively by machining processes.
Technical Paper

Investigation of Plasma Exhaust Profile Manipulation Using Magnetic Fields

In this research, the magnetoplasmadynamic (MPD) effects of applying a toroidal magnetic field around an ionized exhaust plume were investigated to manipulate the exhaust profile of the plasma jet under near vacuum conditions. Tests for this experiment were conducted using the West Virginia University (WVU) Hypersonic Arc Jet Wind Tunnel. A series of twelve N52 grade neodymium magnets were placed in different orientations around a steel toroid mounted around the arc jet’s exhaust plume. Four different magnet orientations were tested in this experiment. Two additional configurations were run as control tests without any imposed magnetic fields surrounding the plume. Each test was documented using a set of 12 photographs taken from a fixed position with respect to the flow. The photographic data was analyzed by comparing images of the exhaust plume taken 10, 20, and 30 seconds after the plasma jet was activated.
Technical Paper

Experimental Investigation into the Degradation of Borosilicate Glass Used in Dielectric Barrier Discharge Devices

The dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) has seen significantly increased levels of interest for its applications to various aerodynamic problems. The DBD produces stable atmospheric-pressure non-thermal plasma with highly energetic electrons and a variety of ions and neutral species. The resulting plasma often degrades the dielectric barrier between the electrodes of the device, ultimately leading to actuator failure. Several researchers have studied a variety of parameters related to degradation and time-dependent dielectric breakdown of various polymers such as PMMA or PVC that are often used in actuator construction. Many of these studies compare the degradation of these materials to that of borosilicate glass in which it is claimed that there is no observable degradation to the glass. Recent research at West Virginia University has shown that certain actuator operating conditions can lead to degradation of a glass barrier and can ultimately result in failure.
Technical Paper

Evaluation of a Portable Micro-Dilution Tunnel Particulate Measurement System

The Federal Test Procedure (FTP) for heavy-duty engines requires the use of a full-flow tunnel based constant volume sampler (CVS) which is costly to build and maintain, and requires a large workspace. A portable micro-dilution system that could be used for measuring on-board, in use emissions from heavy duty vehicles would be an inexpensive alternative compared to a full-flow CVS tunnel, as well as requiring significantly less workspace. This paper evaluates such a portable particulate matter measuring system. This micro-dilution tunnel operates on the same principle as a full-flow tunnel, however dilution ratios can be more easily controlled with the micro dilution system. The dilution ratios for the micro-dilution system were maintained at least four to one, as per ISO 8178 requirements, by measuring the mass flow rates of the dilution air and dilute exhaust.
Technical Paper

Design of a Portable Micro-Dilution Tunnel Particulate Matter Emissions Measurement System

The Federal Test Procedure (FTP) for heavy-duty engines requires the use of a full-flow tunnel based constant volume sampler (CVS). These are costly to build and maintain, and require a large workspace. A small portable micro-dilution system that could be used on-board, for measuring emissions of in-use, heavy-duty vehicles would be an inexpensive alternative. This paper presents the rationale behind the design of such a portable particulate matter measuring system. The presented micro-dilution tunnel operates on the same principle as a full-flow tunnel, however given the reduced size dilution ratios can be more easily controlled with the micro dilution system. The design targets dilution ratios of at least four to one, in accordance with the ISO 8178 requirements. The unique features of the micro-dilution system are the use of only a single pump and a porous sintered stainless steel tube for mixing dilution air and raw exhaust sample.
Journal Article

High Temperature Sampling System for Real Time Measurement of Solid and Volatile Fractions of Exhaust Particulate Matter

This paper discusses the design and qualification of a High Temperature Sampling System (HTSS), capable of stripping the volatile fraction from a sample flow stream in order to provide for quantification of total, solid and volatile particulate matter (PM) on a near real-time basis. The sampling system, which incorporates a heated diesel oxidation catalyst, is designed for temperatures up to 450°C. The design accounts for molecular diffusion of volatile compounds, solid particles diffusion and reaction kinetics inside one channel of the oxidation catalyst. An overall solid particle loss study in the sampling was performed, and numerical results were compared with experimental data gathered at the West Virginia University Engine and Emissions Research Laboratory (EERL) and West Virginia University's Transportable Heavy-Duty Vehicle Emissions Testing Laboratory (THDVETL).
Journal Article

Lightweight Composite Air Cargo Containers

Air cargo containers are used to load freight on various types of aircrafts to expedite their handling. Fuel cost is the largest contributor to the total cost of ownership of an air cargo container. Therefore, a better fuel economy could be achieved by reducing the weight of such containers. This paper aims at developing innovative, lightweight design concepts for air cargo containers that would allow for weight reduction in the air cargo transportation industry. For this purpose, innovative design and assembly concepts of lightweight design configurations of air cargo containers have been developed through the applications of lightweight composites. A scaled model prototype of a typical air cargo container was built to assess the technical feasibility and economic viability of creating such a container from fiber-reinforced polymer (FRP) composite materials. The paper is the authoritative source for the abstract.