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Technical Paper

Quantification of Yard Hostler Activity and the Development of a Representative Yard Hostler Cycle

2009-11-02
2009-01-2652
Yard hostlers are tractors (switchers) used to move containers at ports and storage facilities. While many speed-time driving cycles for assessing emissions and performance from heavy-duty vehicles exist, a driving cycle representative of yard hostler activity at Port of Long Beach, CA was not available. Activity data were collected from in-use yard hostlers as they performed ship loading/unloading, rail loading/unloading and other yard routines, primarily moving containers on trailers or carts. The activity data were then used to develop four speed-time driving cycles with durations of 1200 seconds, representing light and heavy ship activities and light and heavy load rail activities. These cycles were constructed using actual speed-time data collected during activity logging and the cycles created were statistically comparable to each subset of activity data.
Technical Paper

Evaluation of Sensor Failure Detection, Identification and Accommodation (SFDIA) Performance Following Common-Mode Failures of Pitot Tubes

2014-09-16
2014-01-2164
Recent catastrophic air crashes have shown that physical redundancy is not a foolproof option for failures on Air Data Systems (ADS) on an aircraft providing airspeed measurements. Since all the redundant sensors are subjected to the same environmental conditions in flight, a failure on one sensor could occur on the other sensors under certain conditions such as extreme weather; this class of failure is known in the literature as “common mode” failure. In this paper, different approaches to the problem of detection, identification and accommodation of failures on the Air Data System (ADS) of an aircraft are evaluated. This task can be divided into component tasks of equal criticality as Sensor Failure Detection and Identification (SFDI) and Sensor Failure Accommodation (SFA). Data from flight test experiments conducted using the WVU YF-22 unmanned research aircraft are used.
Technical Paper

Influence of Materials Properties on Process Planning Effectiveness

2017-03-28
2017-01-0227
Process planning, whether generative or variant, can be used effectively as through the incorporation of computer aided tools that enhance the evaluator impact of the dialogue between the design and manufacturing functions. Expert systems and algorithms are inherently incorporated into the software tools used herein. This paper examines the materials related implications that influence design for manufacturing issues. Generative process planning software tools are utilized to analyze the sensitivity of the effectiveness of the process plans with respect to changing attributes of material properties. The shift that occurs with respect to cost and production rates of process plans with respect to variations in specific material properties are explored. The research will be analyzing the effect of changes in material properties with respect to the design of a specific product that is prismatic and is produced exclusively by machining processes.
Technical Paper

Isometric Strength During Scaffold End Frame Disassembly

1999-05-18
1999-01-1907
Overexertion injuries comprise the largest category of nonfatal injuries among construction workers. These injuries typically occur when the biomechanical stresses associated with tasks such as lifting, carrying, pushing, etc., exceed the worker’s strength capacity. Two studies were conducted to measure the whole-body isometric strength capability of 56 construction workers. The first study examined the effect of four typical postures (2 symmetric lifts and 2 asymmetric lifts) associated with scaffold end frame disassembly. The effect of posture on isometric strength capability was significant; the strength capability ranged from 366 N to 676 N. The second study evaluated the effect of hand separation distance (46 cm, 86.4 cm, and 116.8 cm) and vertical hand placement (knuckle, elbow, and acromial heights) on isometric force during symmetric lifting postures. The interaction effect of hand separation distance - vertical hand placement on isometric strength capability was significant.
Technical Paper

Integrated Quality System in Computer Integrated Manufacturing

2000-08-21
2000-01-3101
Since the quality activities is through out the product whole life-cycle, the quality management should be a integrated quality system, facing the product life-cycle. In CIMS(Computer Integrated Manufacturing System), with the assistance of computer and its relative technologies, IQS(Integrated Quality System) can integrate the quality management technique cells into an organic whole, then the quality management will be more coherent and efficient. In this paper the concept, features, components and functions of IQS are been discussed and the key technologies are pointed out.
Technical Paper

The Study of Modelling and Development Environment for Virtual Manufacturing Systems

2000-08-21
2000-01-3095
For adapting the demands of the rapid changing and enhancing the competing capability of enterprise in the international market, various modern manufacturing systems have been put forward, which are aimed at various specifications, perfect performance and high quality, low production cost and short manufacturing cycle of products, virtual manufacturing system ( VMS) has been emerged as the times require, which is effective technology to meet the challenge of 21 century's manufacturing industries. Based on analyzing modern manufacturing systems, according to the characteristics and requirement of VMS, in this paper, the architecture, the key technologies and the implement way of VMS were explored, and development environment for VMS was put forward, which is a powerful tool for building VMS.
Technical Paper

Design of a Portable Micro-Dilution Tunnel Particulate Matter Emissions Measurement System

2005-10-24
2005-01-3795
The Federal Test Procedure (FTP) for heavy-duty engines requires the use of a full-flow tunnel based constant volume sampler (CVS). These are costly to build and maintain, and require a large workspace. A small portable micro-dilution system that could be used on-board, for measuring emissions of in-use, heavy-duty vehicles would be an inexpensive alternative. This paper presents the rationale behind the design of such a portable particulate matter measuring system. The presented micro-dilution tunnel operates on the same principle as a full-flow tunnel, however given the reduced size dilution ratios can be more easily controlled with the micro dilution system. The design targets dilution ratios of at least four to one, in accordance with the ISO 8178 requirements. The unique features of the micro-dilution system are the use of only a single pump and a porous sintered stainless steel tube for mixing dilution air and raw exhaust sample.
Technical Paper

Thermo-Mechanical Modeling of Friction Stir Spot Welding (FSSW)

2006-04-03
2006-01-1392
This paper presents on-going finite element modeling efforts of friction stir spot welding (FSSW) process using Abaqus/Explicit as a finite element solver. Three-dimensional coupled thermal-stress model was used to calculate thermo-mechanical response of FSSW process. Adaptive meshing and advection schemes, which makes it possible to maintain mesh quality under large deformations, is utilized to simulate the material flow and temperature distribution in FSSW process. The predicted overall deformation shape of the weld joint resembles that experimentally observed. Temperature and stress graphs in the radial direction as well as temperature-deformation distribution plots are presented.
Journal Article

Preliminary Systems Evaluation for a Guidable Extended Range Tube Launched-UAV

2011-10-18
2011-01-2559
Tube Launched-Unmanned Air Vehicles (TL-UAV) are munitions that alter their trajectories during flight to enhance the capabilities by possibly extending range, increasing loiter time through gliding, and/or having guided targeting capabilities. Traditional munition systems, specifically the tube-launched mortar rounds, are not guided. Performance of these "dumb" munitions could be enhanced by updating to TL-UAV and still utilize existing launch platforms with standard propellant detonation firing methods. The ability to actively control the flight path and extend range of a TL-UAV requires multiple onboard systems which need to be identified, integrated, assembled, and tested to meet cooperative function requirements. The main systems, for a mortar-based TL-UAV being developed at West Virginia University (WVU), are considered to be a central hub to process information, aerodynamic control devices, flight sensors, a video camera system, power management, and a wireless transceiver.
Journal Article

Innovative Structural Concepts for Lightweight Design of Heavy Vehicle Systems

2008-10-07
2008-01-2654
The objective of this paper is to devise innovative lightweight design concepts for heavy vehicle structures. A 1 to 4 prototype of a trailer was built to assess the feasibility of use of polymer composites and to have first hand experience with possible bonding methods to join the design parts. In the current trailer configurations, floor assembly constitutes 70% of the overall weight. The results indicated that sandwich technology with a lightweight core that adds flexural stiffness to the overall design provides a solution to decrease the weight of heavy vehicle systems.
Journal Article

Energy Conservation through Productivity Enhancement in Manufacturing Facilities

2008-04-14
2008-01-1164
The goal of this research work is to explore the energy savings that may result from productivity improvement recommendations. The productivity improvement recommendations on setup time reduction and finished goods inventory reduction were taken from Industrial Assessment Center (IAC-WVU) and Industries of the Future (IOF-WVU) databases at West Virginia University (WVU) and analyzed to evaluate the corresponding energy savings. A simulation analysis was performed to compare the peak energy demands (kW) in the present and proposed scenarios for the setup time reduction recommendation. It was found that productivity improvement recommendations can result in significant energy savings (2% to 4%).
Journal Article

Lightweight Composite Air Cargo Containers

2016-09-27
2016-01-2119
Air cargo containers are used to load freight on various types of aircrafts to expedite their handling. Fuel cost is the largest contributor to the total cost of ownership of an air cargo container. Therefore, a better fuel economy could be achieved by reducing the weight of such containers. This paper aims at developing innovative, lightweight design concepts for air cargo containers that would allow for weight reduction in the air cargo transportation industry. For this purpose, innovative design and assembly concepts of lightweight design configurations of air cargo containers have been developed through the applications of lightweight composites. A scaled model prototype of a typical air cargo container was built to assess the technical feasibility and economic viability of creating such a container from fiber-reinforced polymer (FRP) composite materials. The paper is the authoritative source for the abstract.
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