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Technical Paper

Nearfield Analysis of Low Speed Flow over a Dielectric Barrier Discharge Device for Enhancement of Small UAV Aerodynamics

As unmanned aerial vehicle applications continue their rise in popularity in the public and private sectors, there is an increasing demand in many cases for smaller, more efficient low speed unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs). Although the primary drivers for the continued performance improvement of smaller UAV platforms tend to be in the areas of electronics miniaturization and improved energy storage, aerodynamics, particularly in the low Reynolds number regime, still have a significant role in the overall performance enhancement of small UAVs. This paper focuses on the study of the nearfield aerodynamic effects of a low-power active flow enhancement technique known as dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) in very low speed/low Reynolds number flows most closely associated with small and micro unmanned aerial vehicles.
Technical Paper

Analysis of Lightweighting Design Alternatives for Automotive Components

Gasoline-powered vehicles compose the vast majority of all light-duty vehicles in the United States. Improving fuel economy is currently a topic of great interest due to the rapid rise in gasoline costs as well as new fuel-economy and greenhouse-gas emissions standards. The Chevrolet Silverado is currently one of the top selling trucks in the U.S. and has been previously modeled using the commercial finite element code LS-DYNA by the National Crash Analysis Center (NCAC). This state-of the art model was employed to examine alternative weight saving configurations using material alternatives and replacement of traditional steel with composite panels. Detailed mass distribution analysis demonstrated the chassis assembly to be an ideal candidate for weight reduction and was redesigned using Aluminum 7075-T6 Alloy and Magnesium Alloy HM41A-F.
Technical Paper

Some Developments in DES Modeling for Engine Flow Simulation

Scale-resolving turbulence modeling for engine flow simulation has constantly increased its popularity in the last decade. In contrast to classical RANS modeling, LES-like approaches are able to resolve a larger number of unsteady flow features. In principle, this capability allows to accurately predict some of the key parameters involved in the development and optimization of modern engines such as cycle-to-cycle variations in a DI engine. However, since multiple simulated engine cycles are required to extract reliable flow statistics, the spatial and temporal resolution requirements of pure LES still represent a severe limit for its wider application on realistic engine geometries. In this context, Hybrid URANS-LES methodologies can therefore become a potentially attractive option. In fact, their task is to preserve the turbulence scale-resolving in the flow core regions but at a significantly lower computational cost compared to standard LES.
Technical Paper

Investigation of Plasma Exhaust Profile Manipulation Using Magnetic Fields

In this research, the magnetoplasmadynamic (MPD) effects of applying a toroidal magnetic field around an ionized exhaust plume were investigated to manipulate the exhaust profile of the plasma jet under near vacuum conditions. Tests for this experiment were conducted using the West Virginia University (WVU) Hypersonic Arc Jet Wind Tunnel. A series of twelve N52 grade neodymium magnets were placed in different orientations around a steel toroid mounted around the arc jet’s exhaust plume. Four different magnet orientations were tested in this experiment. Two additional configurations were run as control tests without any imposed magnetic fields surrounding the plume. Each test was documented using a set of 12 photographs taken from a fixed position with respect to the flow. The photographic data was analyzed by comparing images of the exhaust plume taken 10, 20, and 30 seconds after the plasma jet was activated.
Technical Paper

A Finite Element Modeling Approach for Stability Analysis of Partially Filled Tanker Trucks

The rollover threshold for a partially filled tanker truck carrying fluid cargo is of great importance due to the catastrophic nature of accidents involving such vehicles, particularly when payloads are toxic and flammable. In this paper, a method for determining the threshold of rollover stability of a specific tanker truck is presented using finite element analysis methods. This approach allows the consideration of many variables which had not been fully incorporated in past models, including nonlinear spring behavior and tank flexibility. The program uses simple mechanical pendulums to simulate the fluid sloshing affects, beam elements to match the torsional and bending stiffness of the tank, and spring damper elements to simulate the suspension. The finite element model of the tanker truck has been validated using data taken by the U.S. Army Aberdeen Test Center (ATC) on a M916A1 tractor/ Etnyre model 60PRS 6000 gallon trailer combination.
Technical Paper

Design, Manufacturing, Testing, and Analysis of a Highly-Constrained Single-Use UAV Wing

Unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) design aspects are as broad as the missions they are used to support. In some cases, the UAV mission scope can impose design constraints that can be difficult to achieve. This paper describes recent work performed at West Virginia University (WVU) to support repeated flight testing of a single-use UAV platform with emphasis on the highly specialized wings required to help meet the overall airframe mass properties constrained by the project sponsor. The wings were fabricated using a molded polyurethane (PU) foam as the base material which was supported by several different types of rigid and flexible substructures, skins, and matrix-infused fiber elements. Different ratios of infused fiber mass to PU foam were tested and additional tungsten masses were added to the wings to achieve the correct total mass and mass distribution of the wings.
Technical Paper

Contribution of Soot Contaminated Oils to Wear

Among the key technologies currently being used for reducing emissions of oxides of nitrogen, Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) has been found to be very effective for light duty diesel engines. However, EGR results in a sharp increase in particulate matter emissions in heavy-duty diesel engines. The presence of increased levels of particulate matter in the engine has led to increased wear of engine parts such as cylinder liners, piston rings, valve train system and bearings. A statistically designed experiment was developed to examine the effects of soot contaminated engine oil on wear of engine components. A three-body wear machine was designed and developed to simulate and estimate the extent of wear. The three oil properties studied were phosphorous level, dispersant level and sulfonate substrate level. The above three variables were formulated at two levels: High (1) and Low (-1). This resulted in a 23 matrix (8 oil blends).