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Technical Paper

Deformation Comparison Between Bias and Radial Aircraft Tires Using Optical Techniques

1995-05-01
951433
Although radial tires have been used in automobiles, they are still in the stage of testing for a possible future use in aircraft. An important consideration is the tire's average life when subjected to various loading conditions. Along with this consideration, tire deformation is one of the concerns. This paper presents a study of deformation comparison between F16 bias and radial aircraft tires subjected to loading conditions against flat plate and flywheel with different percentages of tire deflection and different yaw angles. Optical fringe projection technique is used to determine the three dimensional tire deformation. Like any other similar optical technique, the deformed surface is measured relative to the selected reference point. Therefore, in order to find the absolute geometry of the deformed tire surface, a close-range fiber optic displacement sensor was installed to accurately detect the point's height change in a direction parallel to the wheel axle.
Technical Paper

Wear of Tire Tread/Carcass Composites

1995-05-01
951415
A multi-axial dynamic test instrument was designed to perform wear testing of actual aircraft tires as well as tread/carcass composite specimens under laboratory loading conditions which simulate the elements of take-off, landing and taxiing operations. The wear tester consists of a self-spinning abrading head, mounted on the actuator of a servo-hydraulic test system, which faces either (1) the tread surface of a composite specimen clamped by a horizontal stretch frame or (2) the tread region of actual inflated tires. The test concept has been partially proven in the case of tread/carcass composite specimens by building a proto-type test apparatus and operating it successfully. In the current test set-up, the specimen is subjected to static tension to simulate a circumferential load in the tire footprint and the tread surface is in periodic contact with an abrading head under a specific level of pressure.
Technical Paper

Dynamic Testing of F-16 Bias and Radial Tire Deformation

1996-05-01
961303
This paper presents an optical technique called fringe projection to measure three dimensional tire deformation subjected to different loads, percentages of deflection and yaw angles. Unlike the well-known Moire method, the proposed technique uses a single light source and a grating, thus requiring no image superposition. As a result, the measurement is not as sensitive to vibration as the Moire method. The fringe projection also differs from the commonly used optical inspection technique in manufacturing industry via line scanning known as structured light, which cannot be applied to dynamic deformation measurements. The recently developed subpixel resolution was employed to accurately locate the optical fringe centers, which in turn improves the accuracy in 3-D geometry determination. A fiber-optic displacement sensor was also placed close to the tire sidewall in order to measure the deformational change of a selected reference point.
Technical Paper

Optical Technique for Measuring Tire Deformation and Strains - Preliminary Results

1994-04-01
941178
The main objective of this research was to apply an optical technique called fringe projection to quantifying the aircraft tire deformation and strains. The proposed fringe projection technique, using a single light source and a grating, requires no image superposition. Thus, the measurement is not very sensitive to vibration. Three different types of tires in static and dynamic conditions, subjected to different amounts of tire deflections, were tested. A common practice in three dimensional optical measurement is that a fixed reference plane has to be established, from which a fixed reference point is selected. The main technical difficulty in this research is that a tire subjected to an applied load not only moves and rotates, but deforms as well. Therefore, the selected reference point changes its position in three dimensions all the time.
Technical Paper

Test Evaluation of an Affordable Fighter Aircraft Vapor Cycle System

1994-04-01
941149
Advanced centrifugal compressor vapor cycle refrigeration systems are being tested extensively in the laboratory before they are introduced to new affordable fighter aircraft. It was determined that further testing was needed to establish the effects on a centrifugal compressor system due to high and rapidly varying G forces encountered during fighter aircraft maneuvers. Flight weight aircraft vapor cycle components were tested up to 4Gx, 4Gy and 9GZ on the Air Force Armstrong Laboratory Dynamic Environment Simulator Centrifuge Facility under the Integrated Closed Environmental Control System (ICECS) Program at Wright-Patterson AFB, Ohio. The tests demonstrated that a properly designed digital controlled integrated vapor cycle system will operate in the variable G field (9GZ) of a fighter aircraft. It showed that heat exchangers can be designed with minimum effect to gravity “G” fields. The future for vapor cycle systems in new affordable aircraft looks promising.
Technical Paper

Reliability and Maintainability A Common Ground for Cooperation

1994-04-01
941192
Statement of the Problem: Since the Airline Deregulation Act of 1978 the U.S. Airlines have experienced many changes involved with the competitive free market system. For one they have been forced to change their thinking which now lets the balance sheets and bottom line dictate their routes, schedules and pricing. Another is they are forced to operate at lower budgets looking at ways of attracting customers while reducing costs. Both these changes have resulted in the airlines operating close to bankruptcy. With this in mind we see many of the Airlines operating an older fleet of aircraft and not replacing them with newer aircraft. The same is true for the Department of Defense who's mainstay bomber and transport fleet is on average 20 plus years old. So what can the DOD and the airlines do together under the auspices of Dual Use so as to reduce costs and improve their operations?
Technical Paper

LAMS B-52 Flight Experiments In Direct Lift Control

1969-02-01
690406
This paper reports the results of a limited flight evaluation of Direct Lift Control (DLC) on a modified B-52 aircraft. The evaluation was made in conjunction with concluding flights of the Load Alleviation and Mode Stabilization (LAMS) Program and represents the first flight testing of a blended closed loop DLC system on an aircraft of this size and weight. By allowing the pitch and heave motions in the longitudinal axis to be decoupled, the system provided positive control of altitude displacements while holding pitch attitude constant. In both ILS approaches and aerial refueling tasks, controllability was significantly improved and pilot workload was reduced.
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