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Technical Paper

An Integrated Flow Divider/Combiner Valve Design, Part 2

The development of high precision flow divider/combiner valves has received considerable attention by the authors over the past decade. Several different valve designs for division and combination of flow have been designed which display small flow dividing/combining error (1-2%) when compared to conventional designs (2-10%). Recent studies have improved upon the design in order to reduce cost, weight and complexity of the valve. This paper will present the latest of the authors research into the development of a high precision, autoregulated flow divider/combiner valve with an integral shuttle valve. The autoregulator extends the operating range of the integrated flow divider/combiner valve (for errors less than 2 %) to 10-50 lpm compared to 30-50 lpm for the unregulated valve.
Technical Paper

An Integrated Flow Divider/Combiner Valve Design, Part 1

A flow divider valve is a device which allows a single stream of fluid to be split into two paths according to a predetermined ratio and independent of variations or differences in the load pressures. A flow combiner valve combines two paths of fluid into one stream such that the ratio of the flow rates coming into the valve remains independent of any variation or difference between the inlet pressures. This paper describes the design, operation and performance of an integrated flow divider/combiner valve. This design maintains the small flow dividing/combining error of high precision valves (less than 1.5% at rated flow) but incorporates the shuttle valve into the main spool system. This new design reduces the weight of the valve by 20% reducing the cost by approximately 10%. The new structure simplifies the construction of high precision valves and reduces a source of flow dividing/combining error (leakage).
Technical Paper

The Shock Absorber of Energy Recovery Using Electrorheological Fluid

When vehicle traveling on the bumpy road or vehicle acceleration and deceleration, which will cause the body vibration of vehicle, at the same time, a large part of energy would be absorbed by the shock absorber transforms the mechanical energy into heat energy dissipated. In order to recycle the energy of vibration and keep the stability of running car, this paper provides the shock absorber of energy recovery that recycling the energy dissipated from the traditional absorber. The shock absorber includes rod and rodless chamber cavity, the two parts contain oil outlet and oil inlet, which connected to a bridge type loop of hydraulic to make pulsating oil pressure towards one direction, when the shock absorber vibration causes pulsating oil pressure, it drives hydraulic pump operation. Because the output shaft of the hydraulic pump fixedly attached to the input shaft of generator, so the generator produces electricity for recycling energy[1].
Technical Paper

Flow Field Analysis and Structure Optimization of the Suction Nozzle for Road Sweeper

As a key component of airstream system equipped in the road sweeper, the structure of the suction nozzle determines its internal flow field distribution, which affects the dust-sucking efficiency to a great degree. This research is aiming to determine a better suction nozzle structure. Starting with an analysis of the one used in a certain type of road sweeper, the initial model of the suction nozzle is established, and the internal flow field is simulated with typical computational fluid dynamics (CFD) software named FLUENT. Based on the simulation results, the dust-sucking capability of the initial structure is evaluated from the aspects of pressure and velocity distribution. Furthermore, in order to explore the influence of different structural parameters on the flow field distribution within the suction nozzle, models with different cavity heights and shoulder angles are established, and Univariate Method is utilized to analyze the contrast models.
Technical Paper

The Topology Optimization Analysis on Rope-Wheel Glass Lifter

Glass lifter is a key part of automobile door system. Guide rail is the carrier of glass lifter, and it bears various load cases when glass lifer works. Mass, stiffness and natural frequencies are the factors that influence the performance of glass lifter. In order to design a lighter and reasonable glass lifter, topology optimization methods are studied in this paper. In a rope-wheel glass lifter, design domain is determined by the mechanical structure and working conditions. Firstly, the single target continuum structure topology optimization mathematic models of guide rail are built in this paper, and analysis of multi-stiffness topology optimization are carried out accordingly in which volume fraction is set as 0.4, 0.5 and 0.6. These models are based on SIMP (Solid Isotropic Material with Penalization) theory.
Technical Paper

Effects Analysis and Modeling of Different Transmission Running Conditions for Transmission Efficiency

Several factors including internal factors which are related to the structure and components of transmission and external factors which are related to the running condition influence transmission efficiency (TE) collectively. Selected one manual transmission as the research object, this paper mainly analyzes factors including gears and bearings power loss through theoretical calculation and the external factors, such as gears, temperature and torque. Firstly, with a methodology, the overall efficiency of the manual transmission is calculated based on factors. Then, this paper discusses efficiency through external factor. This transmission is experimented on transmission test bench. On the bench, the driving motor (DM) simulates the power input of engine and the load motor (LM) simulates the whole resistance of vehicle. The mechanical transmission is operating in different speeds, torques and work temperature, thus the corresponding data are obtained.
Technical Paper

Low Pumping Loss Hydraulic Retarder with Helium Circulation System

The hydraulic retarder, an important auxiliary brake, has been widely used in heavy vehicles. Under the non-braking working condition, the air resistance torque in the working chamber, which is formed by the rotor of hydraulic retarder's stirring the air, causes pumping loss. This research designs a new type of hydraulic retarder, whose helium is charged into working chamber through closed loop gas system under non-braking working condition, can reduce the parasitic power loss of transmission system. First, under non-braking working condition, the resistance characteristics are analyzed on the base of hydraulic retarder pumping model; then, considering some parameters, such as the volume of chambers and the initial gas pressure, the working chamber gas charge model is established, and the transient gas charge characteristics are also analyzed under non-braking working condition.
Technical Paper

Simulation based Evaluation of the Electro-Hydraulic Energy-Harvesting Suspension (EHEHS) for Off-Highway Vehicles

Nowadays, off-highway vehicles enjoyed a significant status in the national defense and civil construction. There is no doubt that the working conditions of off-highways are quite different from the conventional passenger cars, hence, their suspensions are particularly designed. Since the hydro-pneumatic suspension technology is maturely applied in engineering machinery, this paper presents a concept for a novel energy-harvesting device, which is applied in off-highway vehicles based on hydro-pneumatic suspension, namely, electro-hydraulic energy-harvesting suspension (EHEHS). The EHEHS took the fundamental of mechanism-electronic-hydraulic system, which consisted the following elements: a cylinder, 2 check valves, a hydro-pneumatic spring, a hydraulic motor, a DC motor, a processing circuit and a battery. In the EHEHS system, the cylinder is used to transmit the vibration energy into hydraulic energy, which is stored in hydro-pneumatic spring.
Technical Paper

Pressure Control Method of Hydraulic Retarder Working Chamber

In order to overcome hysteresis and dead zone problems caused by friction for the proportional solenoid valve, and improve rapidity and stability of the pneumatic system on hydraulic retarder, a closed-loop control strategy based on valve coil current was proposed. The high-frequency low-amplitude dither signal was introduced into the proportional solenoid valve. With the proper dither signal, the stick-slip motion of the valve core was transformed into a steady one, and its dynamic performance was improved. Consequently, response time of retarder was reduced during gear changing. The proportional valve coil current was measured as a feedback for a closed-loop control strategy. Combining with the closed-loop strategy, the PI control algorithm was adopted to make sure that valve current was in accordance with the target value. Pulse Width Modulation (PWM) signal was used for the driving of proportional solenoid valve.
Technical Paper

Energy Consumption of Passenger Compartment Auxiliary Cooling System Based on Peltier Effect

The closed cabin temperature is anticipated to be cooled down when it is a bit hot inside the driving car. The traditional air-condition lowers the cabin temperature by frequently switching the status of the compressor, which increases the engine’s parasitic power and shortens the compressor’s service-life. The semiconductor auxiliary cooling system with the properties of no moving parts, high control precision and quick response has the potential to assist the on-board air-condition in modulating the cabin temperature with relative small ranges. Little temperature differences between the cabin and the outside environment means that the system energy consumption to ensure the occupant comfort is relatively low and the inefficiency could be made up by the renewable energy source.
Journal Article

Investigation of Deposits in Urea-SCR System Based on Vehicle Road Test

In vehicles with urea-SCR system, normal operation of the urea-SCR system and engine will be influenced if there are deposits appearing on exhaust pipe wall. In this paper, a commercial vehicle is employed to study the influence factors of deposits through the vehicle road test. The results show that, urea injection rate, temperature and flow field have impacts on the formation of deposits. When decreasing the urea injection rate of calibration status by 20%, the deposit yield would reduce by 32%. If the ambient temperature decreased from 36 °C to 26 °C, the deposit yield would increase by 95%. After optimizing the exhaust pipe downstream of the urea injector by removing the step surface, only a few flow marks of urea droplets are observed on the pipe wall, and no lumps of deposits existing.
Technical Paper

Energy Consumption Optimization for the Electric Vehicle Air Conditioning Using the Condensate Water

In summer, the relatively low temperature water condenses in the evaporator when the vehicle air-conditioning (AC) is running. At present, the vehicle AC condensate water without well utilization is directly wasted. The condenser’s thermal transfer performance has a great influence on the AC performance, and to increase the convective heat transfer coefficient (CHTC) is the key to its design. In this paper, a method of using atomized condensate water (CW) to enhance the condenser’s thermal transfer performance is proposed, which can make the most of the CW's cold energy. It achieves the reuse of CW and increases the condenser’s CHTC. First, the CW flow calculation model in the evaporator and the calculation model of the condenser enhanced thermal transfer using atomized CW are both set up. The influence of the evaporation degree of atomized CW particles in the air on the enhancement effect is comprehensively considered.