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Technical Paper

Reduction of Friction Loss through the Use of Rolling Big-End Bearings

We compared motoring friction loss, output performance at WOT (wide open throttle) and specific fuel consumption of big-end bearings on engines having identical specifications between the case of using plain bearings and rolling bearings to investigate the effect of the lubricating oil supply rate on these parameters in an attempt to improve output through reduction of friction loss for big-end bearings of small, high-output motorcycle engines. Testing was performed using a 125 cc, 4-cycle, single cylinder engine at high engine speeds mainly above 10,000 rpm.
Technical Paper

An Experimental Study of Connecting Rod Big Ends

Connecting rod design factors, such as geometric shape, capscrew torque and materials can significantly affect bore distortion and assembly stress. In this paper, experiments using different materials were conducted on several connecting rod big-ends with various shapes, bosses and bolts. The results show that the distortion of the big-end bore and the bolt stress are influenced considerably by the big-end shape, the bolt axial tension and the material under inertia force. It was also observed that the bolt bending stress and the load separating the big-end joint surface could be calculated with high accuracy using three-dimensional FEM in the initial connecting rod design.
Technical Paper

The Evaluation Method of Surge on Motorcycles

We studied the mechanism of occurrence and evaluation of the surge that is produced in motorcycles equipped with 2-stroke cycle engines by simultaneously measuring chassis behavior and combustion. When modal analysis was performed by measuring the acceleration of each chassis component while placing the test vehicle on a chassis dynamo, it was found that pitching, in which the tires serve as springs, and resonance, generated from the rear suspension spring, occurred simultaneously during surge generation. The major component that is felt physically is pitching. Although a certain degree of correlation was observed between fluctuations in combustion and occurrence of pitching, since the drive line contains a large amount of back lash, the system has a high degree of non-linearity, thus making it difficult to obtain a well-defined correlation.
Technical Paper

Piston Friction Losses in High-Speed Engines

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the effect of the piston shape and weight on the friction losses. The motoring test was conducted on pistons with various shapes, rigidities, and weights at 3000-16000 rpm. The test results suggested that the piston friction loss would be abruptly increased mainly because of the increase in the skirt friction caused by the change of the piston attitude. Then, the piston behavioral simulation was conducted using a two-dimensional rigid model in consideration of the skirt rigidity, which proved the above suggestion. This paper consists of the paper presented at 1990 JSAE Autumn Convention and the results of the investigation we conducted based on the calculation of piston behavioral simulation.
Technical Paper

Reduction of Disagreeable Idle Sound in Two-Stroke Engines

A periodic impulsive sound at idle is occasionally described as ‘disagreeable’ in two-stroke engines. The relation between combustion conditions, piston vibrations, and the disagreeable sound is analyzed to clarify the phenomena. Some means to alleviate disagreeable sound are then proposed through stabilized combustion, high rigidity sound transfer systems, and refined skirt profiles. Experimental results are shown for the effects on main three factors evaluating disagreeable sound-loudness, impulsiveness, and frequency characteristics. In addition, piston behavior is measured, and the relation between piston motion and disagreeable sound is discussed in this paper.
Technical Paper

Combustion Noise of Two-Stroke Gasoline Engines and its Reduction Techniques

In order to obtain more reduction of two-stroke motorcycle engine noise than usual, it becomes necessary to make improvements within the combustion process itself. This study was carried out for two objectives. One is the investigation of the relationship between combustion and noise, and the other one is the development of noise reduction techniques. As the result, it was discovered that there was a significant correlation between engine noise and (dP/dθ)max, called the maximum rate of cylinder pressure rise. Therefore, the reduction of the (dP/dθ) max was recognized to be effective for engine noise reduction. The optimized alteration of combustion chamber shape is the most effective noise reduction technique, because it is able to reduce (dP/dθ) max without any sacrifice of engine power. In fact, the level of noise reduction can be predicted by one of the parameters obtained from the combustion chamber shape.
Technical Paper

The Control of the Primary Inertia Force and Moments Produced in Engines with Three Cylinders or Less

All the primary inertia forces and/or moments generated by engines having three cylinders or less are not normally in balance by themselves and thus may be a great source of vibration for the frame supporting the engine. If the mass distribution of the crankwebs is selected in a proper manner, it is possible to determine arbitrarily the directions and the length ratio of principal axes of ellipses, which are obtained as Lissajous diagrams of inertia force and moment. This method can be effectively applied to reduce vibration in the frames. In this paper the appropriate inertia force and moment ellipse equations are developed and the analysis is outlined for optimizing the engine balance. Also the fundamental properties of the linear vibration systems excited by the elliptical forces as well as some experimental examples of elliptical excitation are detailed.
Technical Paper

Some New Development Aspects of 2-Stroke Cycle Motorcycle Engines

This paper covers certain aspects of the 2-stroke cycle, high-speed, high-output racing engine developed by Yamaha. Based upon design concepts and data from the development of the general racing engine, as well as the development of Grand Prix racing engines, this material is especially concerned with intake, scavenging, and exhaust systems. In addition, data on cooling and lubrication systems are presented.
Technical Paper

Some Development Aspects of Two-Stroke Cycle Motorcycle Engines

This paper describes aspects of YAMAHA 2 cycle, high speed, high output engines. Generally speaking, in order to obtain good results in developing engine performance, high delivery ratios and high thermal and mechanical efficiencies are essential. In addition to these, the most suitable cooling and lubricating systems must be employed. YAMAHA has developed a separate and automatic lubrication system for 2-cycle gasoline engines, which keeps YAMAHA engines well lubricated.
Technical Paper

On the Theory of Orthogonal Engine Mount System and Its Application to Motorcycles

By orthogonalizing the primary inertia moment vector produced by an engine with many engine vectors, a new engine mounting method called “the orthogonal engine mount system” was designed. This paper explains its theoretical background. In addition, a motorcycle with a two-cylinder engine incorporating this system was analyzed by means of modal analysis and building block approach techniques to determine the effectiveness of the orthogonal engine mount system.
Technical Paper

Prototype of Centralized Control System Utilizing Optical Communication for Motorcycles

A centralized control system utilizing optical communication has been developed. Except for the ignition system, almost all electrical functions are under the centralized control. As a method of simplifying wire harness, the time division multiplex communication system using optical communication is adopted. As a result, this new system has made it possible to reduce the number of wires in wire harness from 174 to 123, that of connectors from 60 to 50, and the weight of the wire harness from 1,600 g to 1,350 g. In addition, this system has allowed to reduce the control units (relays) from 11 to 2 (excluding the ignition system).
Technical Paper

Optimization of Multi-Valve Four Cycle Engine Design-The Benefit of Five-Valve Technology

THE MULTI-VALVE FOUR STROKE CYCLE engine design trend is Coward increased engine power and higher fuel efficiency. While a four-valve system is the most common direction, problems occur when the valve area is widened by increasing the cylinder bore for a higher engine output. The layout of four larger valves causes the combustion chamber shape to flatten and the combustion time period to increase. In pursuit of the optimum multi-valve engine we have studied four, five, six and seven-valve per cylinder design. Performance targets and design constraints led us toward the successful five-valve engine technology. This technology develops high engine torque and efficient combustion over a wide range of engine speeds.
Technical Paper

Development of Pollution-Free Rapid Plating System

It is in the plating process that the worst bottleneck occurs in plant automation. We, however, have succeeded in making our plating process free from pollution and compact, allowing us to install this system within a production line and consequently establish a continuous production line resulting in a decrease in plating cost to about 1/2 of the previous cost. We have achieved an excellent chrome plating speed of 60µ/min, by placing an anode relatively close to the part to be plated and by sending the plating solution into the space between the two by means of a pump. This provides a plating speed 100 times faster than with conventional methods, while improving the quality of the plating coat considerably. The system is optimum for functional platings, and can be used for the plating of shock absorber rods, engine valves, engine cylinders, etc.
Technical Paper

Improvement of Two-Stroke Engine Performance with the Yamaha Power Valve System (YPVS)

In two-stroke engines, the exhaust port timing has a great effect on engine performance characteristics. If the exhaust port timing can be varied in response to variations in the engine speed, an extensive improvement of performance can be realized. The Yamaha Power Valve System (YPVS) increases engine output with a valve which operates in the exhaust passage; this valve controls exhaust port timing in response to engine speed, despite the extremely high thermal load encountered in the exhaust passage. This literature deals with the construction and operation principles of YPVS and its effect on the increase of engine output. Also discussed is a series of tests and measurements made on the delivery ratio and trapping efficiency in order to elucidate why engine output is increased.
Technical Paper

Improvement of Fuel Consumption with Variable Exhaust Port Timing in a Two-Stroke Gasoline Engine

In this study, an improvement of fuel consumption by changing the exhaust timing of a two-stroke engine has been made. The study results revealed that a remarkable improvement of fuel economy is possible by controlling the exhaust timing according to the engine speed. The reason for the better fuel economy was clarified through an analysis of exhaust gases, theoretical cycle calculations, and an analysis of combustion pressure. As an example of actual application, the results of tests made on an engine equipped with Yamaha power Valve System (YPVS), which is a variable exhaust timing mechanism using a tabor-shaped valve, will also be discussed.
Technical Paper

Valve Motion Simulation Method for High-Speed Internal Combustion Engines

Abnormal valve gear vibration is a perennial problem confronting the designer of high-performance 4-stroke engines. It would shorten time and reduce costs if an analytical method could be applied to the prediction of engine valve behavior. This paper describes a method of valve motion simulation for both SOHC and DOHC valve gears through interactive calculation and using computer graphics. The authors tried to set up as simple a simulation model as possible by using modal analysis and modeling techniques. Through setting simulation model parameters and experimental damping factors, a close correlation between calculated and actually measured results was found.
Technical Paper

L.D.V. Measurements of Pipe Flows in a Small-Two-Cycle Spark-lgnition Engine

A laser Doppler velocimeter is used to measure in real time the velocities of pipe flows in a crankcase-scavenged small two-cycle engine with piston and reed valves. Consequently the optical windows in each pipe must be exchanged instantly by using rotary window systems. The flows in both the inlet and exhaust pipes show different patterns in the motored and firing conditions, but the flows in the scavenging pipe are in a similar pattern regardless of the operating conditions.
Technical Paper

The Investigation of Mixture Formation and Combustion with Port Injection System by Visualization of Flame and Wall Film

Mixture formation is one of the most important factors for the combustion in the spark ignition engine with port fuel injection. The relation between combustion and mixture quality, however, is not quantitatively well established. In this study, the connection of combustion and mixture formation was explored with various measurement techniques. Borescopes were used in order to investigate the flame propagation in the combustion chamber and behavior of spray and fuel film on the wall in the intake port. For the purpose of investigation on the effect of mixture formation, various port fuel injection systems and parameters were tested and compared: direction, timing, and size of droplet. An SI engine for small vehicle was used under condition of 4 000 rpm. The investigation by images obtained has shown that inhomogeneity of mixture causes low combustion stability, especially due to direct introduction of fuel droplets into the combustion chamber.
Technical Paper

Improving the Fuel Consumption of Small Motorcycle Engine with YMJET-FI

A construction of the technology concerning fuel consumption improvement is an important problem not only for the four-wheeled vehicle but also for the motorcycle in recent years when petroleum resources are depleted rapidly. Yamaha originally developed a new fuel injection system (YMJET-FI) and applied the system to a single cylinder, water-cooled and small-displacement engine. In this paper, we would introduce the results of improving the fuel economy with keeping high performance. Improvements were noted in three matters, namely, in the lower load range, 1.Strengthening of in-cylinder flow, 2.Atomization of fuel spray, and 3.Reduction of wall film quantity.
Technical Paper

Application of Chaos Theory to Engine Systems

We focus on the control issue for engine systems from the perspective of chaos theory, which is based on the fact that engine systems have a low-dimensional chaotic dynamics. Two approaches are discussed: controlling chaos and harnessing chaos, respectively. We apply Pyragas' chaos control method to an actual engine system. The experimental results show that the chaotic motion of an engine system may be stabilized to a periodic motion. Alternatively, harnessing chaos for engine systems is addressed, which regards chaos as an essential dynamic mode for the engine.