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Technical Paper

The Control of the Primary Inertia Force and Moments Produced in Engines with Three Cylinders or Less

All the primary inertia forces and/or moments generated by engines having three cylinders or less are not normally in balance by themselves and thus may be a great source of vibration for the frame supporting the engine. If the mass distribution of the crankwebs is selected in a proper manner, it is possible to determine arbitrarily the directions and the length ratio of principal axes of ellipses, which are obtained as Lissajous diagrams of inertia force and moment. This method can be effectively applied to reduce vibration in the frames. In this paper the appropriate inertia force and moment ellipse equations are developed and the analysis is outlined for optimizing the engine balance. Also the fundamental properties of the linear vibration systems excited by the elliptical forces as well as some experimental examples of elliptical excitation are detailed.
Technical Paper

L.D.V. Measurements of Pipe Flows in a Small-Two-Cycle Spark-lgnition Engine

A laser Doppler velocimeter is used to measure in real time the velocities of pipe flows in a crankcase-scavenged small two-cycle engine with piston and reed valves. Consequently the optical windows in each pipe must be exchanged instantly by using rotary window systems. The flows in both the inlet and exhaust pipes show different patterns in the motored and firing conditions, but the flows in the scavenging pipe are in a similar pattern regardless of the operating conditions.
Technical Paper

Steering Damper for Motocross

In this paper, we introduce a research of Steering Damper using MR fluid (Magnetorheological Fluid). In recent years, Steering Dampers have been used in motocross races on off road courses. Steering Dampers stabilize the front end of motocross bikes that are used in competitive races held on rough terrain. The advantage of a Steering Damper is increased stability, however hydraulic Steering Dampers give rise to the problem of ‘Heavy Steering’. In order to solve this problem, we used MR Fluid and developed an Electronic Control Steering Damper that does not use a valve like hydraulic damper. The damper design uses “Direct Shear Mode” and features a steering angle sensor built into the damper, which results in easier, smoother steering. To test the effectiveness of our new design, we installed our new Steering Damper on the YZ 450F (Yamaha's competition model). We then asked for feedback from riders both in Japan and overseas.
Technical Paper

Development of Advanced Propeller Damper (Shift Dampener System)

Generally, the gearshift mechanism for outboard motors shifts into forward or reverse gear without using the synchromesh arrangement (dog clutch engagement)(See Fig.1). This type of shift mechanism has advantages in simple structure and in saving space and cost, but at the same time, this is often the source of problem due to the abrasion caused by the hitting of gear against the dog clutch before the engagement, as well as large gearshift shock and noise. In addition, the outboard motor horsepower is getting bigger in recent years. As they are equipped with bigger and heavier engines and propellers, the shifting shock and noise tend to become more severe. For this reason, the improvement in this aspect is required. We looked into the way to reduce the shock and noise by means of propellers, because the propeller can be mounted and replaced easily, which allows the effective improvement to be spread to the outboard motors already in the market.
Technical Paper

Application of FEM Analysis Using Loads Predicted from Strain Measurement in Motorcycle Frame Development

This paper presents an approach for efficiently evaluating motorcycle main frame strength using external loads predicted from measured strain data in our development process. The loads are calculated by simple matrix inversion, and can be used as boundary conditions of static analysis that resembles actual phenomena. The advantage of this method is that it allows relatively precise reproduction of actual boundary conditions without the data usually needed for dynamic simulation such as tire and suspension characteristics which often take large amount of time and man-hour to obtain. Although this approach is simple and common practice, there are a lot of things to be concerned for gaining useful results in a broad range of stages in the motorcycle main frame development process. How we effectively make use of this approach is going to be introduced here.
Technical Paper

Prediction of the Cavitation Effect on the Flow Around the Outboard Motor Propeller Blade Hydrofoil Section Using CFD

The propeller blade hydrofoil section is one of the factors that determines the propeller performance. In the development of the hydrofoil, repeatedly performed experiments using many foil models and the cavitation tunnel involve extended time and high cost. This is why there are expectations for the numerical simulation to realize shorter development time and cost cutback. On the other hand, a technique for reproducing the hydrofoil characteristics taking account of the cavitation effect using CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics) has hardly been established. There is no example of performance prediction especially for a hydrofoil section of the outboard motor propellers in which the trailing edge is cut off. This paper describes the results of the prediction of hydrodynamic characteristics performed in regard to the two differently shaped outboard motor propeller blade hydrofoil sections taking account of the cavitation effect.
Technical Paper

Light Body for Small Vehicles Using High-Quality Die-Casting Component

A high-quality die-casting technology has been developed for lightweight aluminum frame structures that produces high-strength aluminum parts that are also weldable. This new technology has been used in casting frames for motorcycles and snowmobiles and has enabled improved frame designs with far fewer component parts than was possible before. This die-casting technology also results in a significant reduction in energy consumption during the manufacturing process.
Journal Article

Steering Damper for Street Motorcycle

We introduce a research on steering dampers using MR fluid (Magnetorheological Fluid). In recent years, steering dampers have been used in on-road and off-road motorcycles. Steering dampers stabilize the front end of motorcycles. The advantage of a steering damper is increased stability, but hydraulic steering dampers give rise to the problem of ‘Heavy Steering’. In order to resolve this heavy steering, we need to set the restrictions on the maximum damping force and avoid it from interfering when the rider is steering. However only reducing the damping force will lead to insufficient damping force when the handle, unresponsive because of kickback, shakes. We solved this problem with the development of an electric control damper which generates sufficient damping force at low steering angle rates and also allows for mechanically limiting the maximum damping force.
Journal Article

Development of New Concept Two-Wheel Steering System for Motorcycles

This paper describes the development of a new concept two-wheel steering system for realizing motorcycle motion control. By considering the whole of the main frame as the rear-wheel steering axis, it was possible to move the rear-wheel steering system from the conventional installation position at the rear arm to the head pipe. As a result, the developed two-wheel steering system is both lightweight and compact. This two-wheel steering system was installed in a motorcycle, and starting and stopping tests were carried out with two people riding on the motorcycle. The test results confirmed that the two-wheel steering system is capable of changing the motion characteristics of the motorcycle in actual riding. Furthermore, by calculating the equivalent wheel alignment of this system, this paper also theoretically demonstrates that these changes in motion characteristics are caused by changes in caster and trail.