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Technical Paper

Reduction of Friction Loss through the Use of Rolling Big-End Bearings

We compared motoring friction loss, output performance at WOT (wide open throttle) and specific fuel consumption of big-end bearings on engines having identical specifications between the case of using plain bearings and rolling bearings to investigate the effect of the lubricating oil supply rate on these parameters in an attempt to improve output through reduction of friction loss for big-end bearings of small, high-output motorcycle engines. Testing was performed using a 125 cc, 4-cycle, single cylinder engine at high engine speeds mainly above 10,000 rpm.
Technical Paper

Improvement of Fuel Consumption with Variable Exhaust Port Timing in a Two-Stroke Gasoline Engine

In this study, an improvement of fuel consumption by changing the exhaust timing of a two-stroke engine has been made. The study results revealed that a remarkable improvement of fuel economy is possible by controlling the exhaust timing according to the engine speed. The reason for the better fuel economy was clarified through an analysis of exhaust gases, theoretical cycle calculations, and an analysis of combustion pressure. As an example of actual application, the results of tests made on an engine equipped with Yamaha power Valve System (YPVS), which is a variable exhaust timing mechanism using a tabor-shaped valve, will also be discussed.
Technical Paper

Improving the Fuel Consumption of Small Motorcycle Engine with YMJET-FI

A construction of the technology concerning fuel consumption improvement is an important problem not only for the four-wheeled vehicle but also for the motorcycle in recent years when petroleum resources are depleted rapidly. Yamaha originally developed a new fuel injection system (YMJET-FI) and applied the system to a single cylinder, water-cooled and small-displacement engine. In this paper, we would introduce the results of improving the fuel economy with keeping high performance. Improvements were noted in three matters, namely, in the lower load range, 1.Strengthening of in-cylinder flow, 2.Atomization of fuel spray, and 3.Reduction of wall film quantity.
Technical Paper

Development of CVT Shift Dynamic Simulation Model with Elastic Rubber V-Belt

This paper presents a practical simulation model of the rubber V-belt CVT which is widely used as a low cost driveline element for small displacement motorcycles. The characteristic of this CVT is determined by the axial force balance between driver and driven pulleys, and the elastic force of a rubber V-belt. Because these axial and elastic forces are calculated by the kinematic and FEM analysis, a large-scale simulation model which costs long execution time for the calculation is needed to estimate the characteristic of CVT. This calculation uses the one-dimensional simulation model built up with MATLAB and SIMULINK environment, so that it was possible to get the calculation result with relatively low execution time. The elastic deformation of the rubber V-Belt was calculated by a simple spring model which was verified by experiments and FEM.
Technical Paper

Effect by Fuel Cut with the Strong Hybrid Motorcycle to Improve the Fuel Consumption

Any improvements of the fuel economy with engines are always required for all petroleum fuel vehicles. The goal of such improvements must lead to reduce fuel consumption of the engines. However it may cause some deterioration with riding feeling that is one of the most important characteristics of the motorcycles. Yamaha has developed the strong hybrid motorcycle "HV-X"(hereafter the motorcycle). The motorcycle consists of a 4-stroke 250 cm₃ a cylinder engine and two 300V AC motors with a planetary gear set. The motorcycle reduces fuel consumption without severe influence onto the drive performance by utilizing the electric power.
Technical Paper

Analyses of Cycle-to-Cycle Variation of Combustion and In-Cylinder Flow in a Port Injection Gasoline Engine Using PIV and PLIF Techniques

Reduction in the cycle-to-cycle variation (CCV) of combustion in internal combustion engines is required to reduce fuel consumption, exhaust emissions, and improve drivability. CCV increases at low load operations and lean/dilute burn conditions. Specifically, the factors that cause CCV of combustion are the cyclic variations of in-cylinder flow, in-cylinder distributions of fuel concentration, temperature and residual gas, and ignition energy. However, it is difficult to measure and analyze these factors in a production engine. This study used an optically accessible single-cylinder engine in which combustion and optical measurements were performed for 45 consecutive cycles. CCVs of the combustion and in-cylinder phenomena were investigated for the same cycle. Using this optically accessible engine, the volume inside the combustion chamber, including the pent-roof region can be observed through a quartz cylinder.
Technical Paper

Study on Characteristics of Gasoline Fueled HCCI Using Negative Valve Overlap

Gasoline fueled Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) combustion with internal exhaust gas re-circulation using Negative Valve Overlap (NOL) was investigated by means of calculation and experiment in order to apply this technology to practical use with sufficient operating range and with acceptable emission and fuel consumption. In this paper we discuss the basic characteristics of NOL-HCCI with emphasis on the influence of intake valve timing on load range, residual gas fraction and induction air flow rate. Emission and fuel consumption under various operation conditions are also discussed. A water-cooled 250cc single cylinder engine with a direct injection system was used for this study. Three sets of valve timing were selected to investigate the effect of intake valve opening duration. Experimental results demonstrated that an engine speed of approximately 2000rpm yields an NMEP (Net Mean Effective Pressure) range from 200kPa to 400kPa.
Technical Paper

Advanced Super Charge System for Small Engines

The specific output of 4-cycle engines are generally smaller than that of 2-cycle engines. Increasing engine speed is one method to improve the specific output, however, it contains some disadvantages in application. Hence, improvement in torque with the 4-cycle engine is desirable. Although torque could be improved by super-charging, it seems difficult to apply existing systems for small displacement engines due to problems of their size and cost. We have, therefore, newly developed a super-charging system named Advanced Crankcase Super Charge (hereinafter referred to as ACSC) using a crankcase as a supercharger. In this study, we made a 50cc single cylinder prototype engine with ACSC and carried out the engine unit tests and actual running tests on a scooter. From these tests, the torque that is twice as that of the naturally aspirated engine was obtained.
Technical Paper

The Influence of Port Fuel Injection on Combustion of a Small Displacement Engine for Motorcycle

The demands on internal combustion engines for low emissions and fuel consumption are increasing year by year. On the other hand, engines to be used in motorcycles need to provide high output and quick response to meet user desire. In order to realize low fuel consumption while keeping high performance, it is necessary to properly understand cyclic variations during combustion as well as the influence of the injection system on fuel control during transient periods. The current paper reports on the results of a study in the influence of port fuel injection on combustion stability in a small displacement motorcycle engine, using both a series of experiments and CFD. The parameters of the injection systems under study are: (1) injection targeted area, (2) injection timing, and (3) fuel droplet size. The results of the current study show that injection aimed at the upstream wall yielded the best combustion stability.
Technical Paper

Fuel Injection System for Small Motorcycles

Attempts have been made to develop an electronically controlled fuel injection system that is ideal for small motorcycles, cost-efficient, compact, and electric power-saving while maintaining accuracy. For reducing the number of sensors and cost, highly accurate methods have been developed for the measurement of intake air mass, detection of acceleration, distinction of engine stroke, and estimation of atmospheric pressure without using a throttle position sensor, cam timing sensor, and barometric sensor in such a manner as to carry out sampling with the intake manifold pressure of single-cylinder engines synchronizing with the crank angle. For compactness and electric power saving, an injector and in-tank fuel pump module have been developed for small motorcycles.
Technical Paper

04 Emission Reduction by Cylinder Wall Injection in 2-Stroke S.I. Engines

A direct injection system in which fuel was injected through the cylinder wall was developed and detailed investigation was made for the purpose of reducing short-circuit of fuel in 2-stroke engines. As a result of dynamo tests using 430cc single cylinder engine, it was found that the injector was best attached at a location as close to TDC as possible on the rear transfer port side, and that the entire amount of fuel should be injected towards the piston top surface. Emissions were worsened if fuel was injected towards the exhaust port or spark plug. Although the higher injection pressure resulted in large emissions reduction effects, it did not have a significant effect on fuel consumption. When a butterfly exhaust valve, known to be effective against irregular combustion in the light load range, was applied, it was found to lead to further reductions in HC emission and fuel consumption while also improving combustion stability.
Journal Article

Friction Measurement of Al-17%Si Monolithic Cylinder with using Newly Developed Floating Liner Device

The improvement of fuel consumption is the most important issue for engine manufactures from the viewpoint of energy and environment conservation. A piston-cylinder system plays an important role for the reduction of an engine friction. For the improvement of the frictional behavior of the piston-cylinder system, it is beneficial to observe and analyze the frictional waveforms during an engine operation. To meet the above-mentioned demand, frictional waveforms were measured with using the renewed floating liner device. In the newly developed floating liner device, an actual cylinder block itself was used as a test specimen. The measured single cylinder was an aluminum monolithic type made of hypereutectic Al-17%Si alloy using a high pressure die casting process. The combined piston was a light weight forged piston and a DLC coated piston ring was used. For the measurement, 110cc air cooled single cylinder engine was used.
Journal Article

Development of Fracture-Split Connecting Rods Made of Titanium Alloy for Use on Supersport Motorcycles

A connecting rod made of titanium alloy is effective for lower fuel consumption and higher power output comparing to a steel one because the titanium connecting rod enables to reduce the weight of both of reciprocating and rotating parts in an entire engine substantially. But up to now, it has been adopted only to expensive and small-lot production models because a material cost is high, a processing is difficult and a wear on a sliding area should be prevented. In order to adopt the titanium connecting rods into a more types of motorcycles, appropriate materials, processing methods and surface treatment were considered. Hot forging process was applied not only to reduce a machining volume but also to enhance a material strength and stiffness. And the fracture-splitting (FS) method for the big-end of the titanium connecting rod was put into a practical use.