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Technical Paper

A Computational Investigation into the Cool Flame Region in HCCI Combustion

2004-03-08
2004-01-0552
Multi-dimensional computational efforts using comprehensive and skeletal kinetics have been made to investigate the cool flame region in HCCI combustion. The work was done in parallel to an experimental study that showed the impact of the negative temperature coefficient and the cool flame on the start of combustion using different fuels, which is now the focus of the simulation work. Experiments in a single cylinder CFR research engine with n-butane and a primary reference fuel with an octane number of 70 (PRF 70) were modeled. A comparison of the pressure and heat release traces of the experimental and computational results shows the difficulties in predicting the heat release in the cool flame region. The behavior of the driving radicals for two-stage ignition is studied and is compared to the behavior for a single-ignition from the literature. Model results show that PRF 70 exhibits more pronounced cool flame heat release than n-butane.
Technical Paper

Comparison of HCCI Operating Ranges for Combinations of Intake Temperature, Engine Speed and Fuel Composition

2002-06-03
2002-01-1924
A series of engine experiments have been performed to explore the impact intake temperature, engine speed and fuel composition on the HCCI operating range of a CFR engine. The experimental matrix covers a range of engine speeds 600 - 2000 RPM), intake temperatures (300 K - 400 K), and four different fuels. Three of the fuels had different chemical composition but had equivalent research octane numbers of 91.8. The fourth fuel, a blend of primary reference fuels had a research octane number of 70. The acceptable HCCI operating range of the engine was defined through two criteria; the rate of pressure rise needed to be less than 10 MPa per crank angle and the covariance of the indicated mean effective pressure needed to be less than 10 percent. Using these limits the HCCI operating range for the engine was evaluated for the experimental matrix. Data for emissions, and fuel consumption as well as in-cylinder pressure were recorded.
Technical Paper

An Investigation Into the Effect of Fuel Composition on HCCI Combustion Characteristics

2002-10-21
2002-01-2830
A single cylinder CFR research engine has been run in HCCI combustion mode for a range of temperatures and fuel compositions. The data indicate that the best HCCI operation, as measured by a combination of successful combustion with low ISFC, occurs at or near the rich limit of operation. Analysis of the pressure and heat release histories indicated the presence, or absence, and impact of the fuel's NTC ignition behavior on establishing successful HCCI operation. The auto-ignition trends observed were in complete agreement with previous results found in the literature. Furthermore, analysis of the importance of the fuel's octane sensitivity, through assessment of an octane index, successfully explained the changes in the fuels auto-ignition tendency with changes in engine operating conditions.
Technical Paper

Expanding the HCCI Operation With the Charge Stratification

2004-03-08
2004-01-1756
A single cylinder CFR research engine has been run in HCCI combustion mode at the rich and the lean limits of the homogeneous charge operating range. To achieve a variation of the degree of charge stratification, two GDI injectors were installed: one was used for generating a homogeneous mixture in the intake system, and the other was mounted directly into the side of the combustion chamber. At the lean limit of the operating range, stratification showed a tremendous improvement in IMEP and emissions. At the rich limit, however, the stratification was limited by the high-pressure rise rate and high CO and NOx emissions. In this experiment the location of the DI injector was in such a position that the operating range that could be investigated was limited due to liquid fuel impingement onto the piston and liner.
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