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Aerospace - Chlorinated Solvent Contamination of MIL-H-5606/MIL-H-83282 Vehicle Hydraulic Systems

2013-06-18
CURRENT
AIR4713A
Although there is controversy regarding the chemical form of chlorine and its relation to harmful effects in the hydraulic fluid (i.e., chloride ions versus organic chloro-compounds versus total chlorine in all forms), it is generally agreed that total chlorine content should be measured and controlled. In the near future, the ban on the manufacture of chlorinated solvents, out of concern for depletion of the ozone layer, may in itself diminish or eliminate chlorine contamination related aircraft malfunctions. It is generally accepted that hydraulic fluid contamination should be held to a minimum under all conditions. The benefits of low contamination levels are improved performance, lower maintenance due to lower wear, corrosion and erosion, longer fluid life, longer component life, etc. Contaminants can be classified into two general types: those that are insoluble and those that are soluble in the hydraulic fluid.
Standard

Aerospace - Chlorinated Solvent Contamination of MIL-H-5606/MIL-H-83282 Vehicle Hydraulic Systems

1992-08-18
HISTORICAL
AIR4713
Although there is controversy regarding the chemical form of chlorine and its relation to harmful effects in the hydraulic fluid (i.e., chloride ions versus organic chloro-compounds versus total chlorine in all forms), it is generally agreed that total chlorine content should be measured and controlled. In the near future, the ban on the manufacture of chlorinated solvents, out of concern for depletion of the ozone layer, may in itself diminish or eliminate chlorine contamination related aircraft malfunctions. It is generally accepted that hydraulic fluid contamination should be held to a minimum under all conditions. The benefits of low contamination levels are improved performance, lower maintenance due to lower wear, corrosion and erosion, longer fluid life, longer component life, etc. Contaminants can be classified into two general types: those that are insoluble and those that are soluble in the hydraulic fluid.
Standard

Fluid Properties

1999-11-01
HISTORICAL
AIR1116A
This report summarizes data relative to liquid fluids and their properties which are of interest to Aerospace Fluid Power technologists.
Standard

Fluid Properties

2013-06-18
CURRENT
AIR1116B
This report summarizes data relative to liquid fluids and their properties which are of interest to Aerospace Fluid Power technologists.
Standard

FLUID PROPERTIES

1992-07-01
HISTORICAL
AIR1116
This report summarizes data relative to liquid fluids and their properties which are of interest to Aerospace Fluid Power technologists.
Standard

HYDROCARBON-BASED HYDRAULIC FLUID PROPERTIES

1995-03-01
HISTORICAL
AIR81A
This document discusses the relative merits of the properties of hydrocarbon-based hydraulic fluid in relation to the fluid formulation, aerospace hydraulic system design and the related materials compatibility. In some cases, numerical limits are suggested, but, in general, the effect of a property is noted qualitatively. The properties of the fluid must be considered in the design of a hydraulic system, but it is possible to design a system to be less sensitive, or more robust, to a particular fluid property. For this reason, the property of the hydraulic fluid must be weighed for each individual hydraulic system, taking into account the system's basic design, function and environment, as well as the fluid toxicity and disposal issues. Besides the hydraulic system itself, ground handling and servicing needs of the system must also be considered. The only absolute characteristic of a hydraulic fluid is that it be a liquid throughout the range of use.
Standard

Hydrocarbon-Based Hydraulic Fluid Properties

2000-12-01
HISTORICAL
AIR81B
This document discusses the relative merits of the properties of hydrocarbon-based hydraulic fluid in relation to the fluid formulation, aerospace hydraulic system design and the related materials compatibility. In some cases, numerical limits are suggested, but, in general, the effect of a property is noted qualitatively. The properties of the fluid must be considered in the design of a hydraulic system, but it is possible to design a system to be less sensitive, or more robust, to a particular fluid property. For this reason, the property of the hydraulic fluid must be weighed for each individual hydraulic system, taking into account the system's basic design, function and environment, as well as the fluid toxicity and disposal issues. Besides the hydraulic system itself, ground handling and servicing needs of the system must also be considered. The only absolute characteristic of a hydraulic fluid is that it be a liquid throughout the range of use.
Standard

Importance of Physical and Chemical Properties of Aircraft Hydraulic Fluids

2016-04-20
HISTORICAL
AIR81D
This document discusses the relative merits of the physical and chemical properties of hydraulic fluids in relation to the aerospace hydraulic system design, and the related materials compatibility. The discussion in this report applies both to hydrocarbon and phosphate ester based aircraft hydraulic fluids. In some cases, numerical limits are suggested, but, in general, the significance and effect of a property is noted qualitatively.
Standard

Importance of Physical and Chemical Properties of Aircraft Hydraulic Fluids

2011-02-08
HISTORICAL
AIR81C
This document discusses the relative merits of the physical and chemical properties of hydraulic fluids in relation to the aerospace hydraulic system design, and the related materials compatibility. The discussion in this report applies both to hydrocarbon and phosphate ester based aircraft hydraulic fluids. In some cases, numerical limits are suggested, but, in general, the significance and effect of a property is noted qualitatively.
Standard

Importance of Physical and Chemical Properties of Aircraft Hydraulic Fluids

2019-10-02
CURRENT
AIR81E
This document discusses the relative merits of the physical and chemical properties of hydraulic fluids in relation to the aerospace hydraulic system design, and the related materials compatibility. The discussion in this report applies both to hydrocarbon and phosphate ester based aircraft hydraulic fluids. In some cases, numerical limits are suggested, but, in general, the significance and effect of a property is noted qualitatively.
Standard

Importance of Physical and Chemical Properties of Aircraft Hydraulic Fluids

1991-11-01
HISTORICAL
AIR81
This report discusses the characteristics of hydraulic fluids and evaluates their importance, not only from the standpoint of fluid formulation, but also in their effect on aero-space hydraulic system design and the materials used in the components of the system. In some cases numerical parameter limits are suggested, but, in general, the effect of a parameter is the basic consideration. Not only must the characteristics of the fluid be considered in the design of a hydraulic system in which it is to be used, but also the characteristics of the system will affect the extent of the importance of the various characteristics of the fluid. In each individual system, as it employs a fluid, the characteristics of the fluid must be assessed with their immediate import and weighed in considering their effects on the system design requirements based upon the variables of system environment, function and basic design.
Standard

Air in Aircraft Hydraulic Systems

2008-02-14
CURRENT
AIR5829
This SAE Aerospace Information Report (AIR) discusses the forms that air may take in aircraft hydraulic systems. Further, the effects of the various air forms on system operation are addressed. Recommended system design to prevent air effects and maintenance procedures to prevent and remove air are provided. Nitrogen leakage from accumulators is also a source of gas in hydraulic systems and may compose a portion of the “air” in the hydraulic system. The term “air” in this report does not differentiate between a gas composed strictly of normal atmospheric air or one that includes a mixture of additional nitrogen as well. The discussions of the report apply equally with any proportions of atmospheric air and nitrogen in the system.
Standard

Aerospace Fluid Power - Waste Reduction Practices for Used Phosphate Ester Aviation Hydraulic Fluid

1999-09-01
HISTORICAL
AIR5277
This SAE Aerospace Information Report (AIR) covers the generation of used phosphate ester aviation hydraulic fluid (AS1241) that is deemed waste because it does not meet in-service limits for use in aircraft. This document also lists the relevant United States Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA) regulations on used hydraulic fluid that are in force at the time of this report’s publication. Regulations of other countries as well as those for states and municipalities should be consulted prior to initiating any of the waste disposal recommendations listed here. This document recommends actions for minimizing waste hydraulic fluid as well as practices for disposing of waste hydraulic fluid.
Standard

Aerospace Fluid Power - Waste Reduction Practices for Used Phosphate Ester Aviation Hydraulic Fluid

2019-08-22
CURRENT
AIR5277B
This SAE Aerospace Information Report (AIR) covers the generation of used phosphate ester aviation hydraulic fluid (AS1241) that is deemed waste because it does not meet in-service limits for use in aircraft. This document also lists the relevant United States Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA) regulations on used hydraulic fluid that are in force at the time of this report's publication. Regulations of other countries as well as those for states and municipalities should be consulted prior to initiating any of the waste disposal recommendations listed here.
Standard

Aerospace Fluid Power - Waste Reduction Practices for Used Phosphate Ester Aviation Hydraulic Fluid

2011-06-27
HISTORICAL
AIR5277A
This SAE Aerospace Information Report (AIR) covers the generation of used phosphate ester aviation hydraulic fluid (AS1241) that is deemed waste because it does not meet in-service limits for use in aircraft. This document also lists the relevant United States Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA) regulations on used hydraulic fluid that are in force at the time of this report's publication. Regulations of other countries as well as those for states and municipalities should be consulted prior to initiating any of the waste disposal recommendations listed here.
Standard

Fire Resistant Phosphate Ester Hydraulic Fluid for Aircraft

2016-09-16
CURRENT
AS1241D
This document establishes the requirements for physical and chemical properties and the minimum tests to evaluate suitability of phosphate ester hydraulic fluids for use in aircraft systems where fire resistance is required. Additional tests may be specified by the qualifying agency to demonstrate compliance with their specific requirements. The "qualifying agency" will be defined herein to be the airframe manufacturer submitting certification approval for use of the fluid in a specific model airplane. Fluids meeting the requirements of this specification may be approved by a qualifying agency for use on specific airplane models. Data used to show compliance to this specification can be used by the qualifying agency to show compliance to the applicable regulations for the appropriate certifying authority; e.g., FAA, EASA, etc.
Standard

Fire Resistant Phosphate Ester Hydraulic Fluid for Aircraft

1997-09-01
HISTORICAL
AS1241C
This document establishes the requirements for physical and chemical properties and the minimum tests to evaluate suitability of phosphate ester hydraulic fluids for use in aircraft systems where fire resistance is required. Additional tests may be specified by procuring agencies to demonstrate compliance with specific requirements.
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