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Technical Paper

Eutectic Segregation and Cracking in AZ91 Friction Stir Spot Welds

2007-04-16
2007-01-1700
Friction stir spot welding of Mg-alloy AZ91 is investigated. The temperature cycles within the stir zone and in the TMAZ region are examined using thermocouples, which are located within the tool itself and also by locating thermocouples in drilled holes at specific locations relative to the bottom of the tool shoulder and the periphery of the rotating pin. The measured temperatures in the stir zone range from 437°C to 460°C (0.98Ts, where Ts is the solidus temperature in degrees Kelvin) in AZ91 spot welds produced using plunge rates from 2.5 and 25 mm/s. The thermal cycle within the stir zone formed during AZ91 spot welding could not be measured by locating thermocouples within the workpiece in drilled holes adjacent to the periphery of the rotating pin.
Technical Paper

Energy Generation and Stir Zone Dimensions in Friction Stir Spot Welds

2006-04-03
2006-01-0971
Energy generation and utilization during friction stir spot welding of Al 6061-T6 and AM50 sheet materials are investigated. The dimensions of the stir zones during plunge testing are largely unchanged when the tool rotational speed increases from 1500 RPM to 3000 RPM (for a plunge rate of 1 mm/s) and when the rate of tool penetration increases from 1 mm/s to 10 mm/s (for a tool rotational speed of 3000 RPM). The energy resulting from tool rotation is also unaffected when higher tool rotational speeds are applied. The rotating pin accounts for around 70% and 66% of the energy generated when 6.3 mm thick Al 6061-T6 and AM50 sheet materials are spot welded without the application of a dwell period. In direct contrast, the contribution made by the tool shoulder increases to around 48% (Al 6061-T6) and to 65% (AM50) when a four second long dwell period is incorporated during spot welding of 6.3 mm thick sheets.
Journal Article

Selection of Welding Parameter during Friction Stir Spot Welding

2008-04-14
2008-01-0146
The selection of parameters during friction stir spot welding of Al-alloys and Mg-alloys is discussed. The role of tool rotation speed, plunge rate, and dwell time is examined in relation to the tool heating rate,temperature, force, and torque that occur during spot welding. In order to reduce the cycle time and tool force during Al- alloy spot welding, it is necessary to increase the tool rotation speed >1500 RPM. The measured peak temperature in the stir zone is determined by the rotation speed and dwell time, and is ultimately limited by the solidus of the alloy. When tool rotation speeds >1500 RPM are employed during AZ91 Mg-alloy spot welding, the tendency for melted film formation and cracking are greatly increased.
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