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Technical Paper

Life Cycle and Economic Analysis of Heavy Duty Diesel Vehicle Idling Alternatives

2004-03-08
2004-01-0637
Heavy Duty Diesel Truck (HDDT) drivers are required by law to rest 8 hours for every 10 driving hours. As a consequence, the trucks are idled for long periods of time to heat or cool the cabin, to keep the engine warm, to run electrical appliances, and to refrigerate or heat truck cargo. This idling results in gaseous and particulate emissions, wasted fuel and is costly. Various technologies can be used to replace truck idling, including heaters, auxiliary power units, parking space electrification, and heating and air conditioning units in the parking space. In this paper the results of a life cycle analysis are reported giving the associated emissions savings and ecological burdens of these four technologies compared to truck idling. In this analysis the savings related to reduced engine maintenance and increased engine life are included. The fuel consumed and emissions produced by a truck engine at idle was obtained from experiments performed at Aberdeen Test Center (ATC).
Technical Paper

The Effect of Ambient Temperature and Humidity on Measured Idling Emissions from Diesel School Buses

2004-03-08
2004-01-1087
The New Jersey Department of Transportation (NJDOT) is currently sponsoring a research study at Rowan University to develop strategies for reducing diesel emissions from mobile sources such as school buses and class 8 trucks. One such source of diesel emissions results from unnecessary idling of school buses, which is a typical practice that occurs in the mornings to warm up engines and in the afternoon while bus drivers wait to pick up children for their afternoon routes. To quantify emissions and fuel consumption during idling, three school buses equipped with an International T444E, an International DT466E, and a Cummins 5.9L B series engine were instrumented and tested in an environmental chamber. To simulate a wide variety of idling situations, tests were conducted at four different ambient temperatures (20°F, 40°F, 65°F and 85°F) and relative humidity ranging from 37 to 90%.
Technical Paper

Experimental Evaluation of Aftertreatment Devices on Mobile School Bus Emissions from Diesel Powered School Buses

2005-04-11
2005-01-1757
The New Jersey Department of Transportation (NJDOT) is currently sponsoring a research study at Rowan University to develop strategies for reducing diesel emissions from mobile sources such as school buses and class 8 trucks. This paper presents the results of mobile school bus testing that has been performed to quantify the emission reduction capabilities of various aftertreatment devices. Particulate filters from Johnson Matthey and Lubrizol were tested along with a diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC) from Nett Technologies. Three school buses equipped with a 1997 7.3L International T444E, a 1997 7.6L International DT466E, and a 1996 Cummins 5.9L ISB series engine were instrumented and tested at the Aberdeen Test Center at the Aberdeen Proving Grounds in Maryland. Exhaust gas emission measurements were made using a Sensors Semtech-D to measure CO, CO2, NO2, NO, O2, and HC, along with a Sensors PM-300 to measure particulate matter (PM).
Technical Paper

Development of a New Composite School Bus Test Cycle and the Effect of Fuel Type on Mobile Emissions from Three School Buses

2005-04-11
2005-01-1616
The New Jersey Department of Transportation (NJDOT) is currently sponsoring a research study at Rowan University to develop strategies for reducing diesel emissions from mobile sources such as school buses and class 8 trucks. This paper presents the results of mobile school bus testing that has been performed to quantify the emission reduction capabilities of various alternative fuels, such as B20/#2 diesel, ultra low sulfur diesel (ULSD), and B20/ULSD, when applied to school buses that are representative of those currently in use in the state of NJ. Three school buses equipped with an International T444E, an International DT466E, and a Cummins 5.9L ISB engine were instrumented and tested at the Aberdeen Test Center at the Aberdeen Proving Grounds in Maryland. Exhaust gas emission measurements were made using a Semtech-D mobile emissions analyzer to measure CO, CO2, NO2, NO, O2, and unburned hydrocarbons, along with a Sensors PM-300 to measure PM.
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